Presentation on theme: "Mr Jernigan. In your T3, write definitions for each of the following terms: ◦ Argument ◦ Persuasion ◦ Central Claim/Thesis ◦ Claim ◦ Evidence ◦ Warrant."— Presentation transcript:
In your T3, write definitions for each of the following terms: ◦ Argument ◦ Persuasion ◦ Central Claim/Thesis ◦ Claim ◦ Evidence ◦ Warrant ◦ Counterclaims Also, identify each of the major parts (from claim on down) on the argument in the final slide.
A logical argument … convinces the audience because of the perceived merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered rather than either the emotions the writing evokes in the audience or the character or credentials of the writer. (Utah Core State Standards, Appendix A, pg. 24)
Argument and persuasion may seem similar, but there are slight nuances that differentiate between the two: Persuasion is the art of changing people’s minds and getting them to do something. Argument’s main concern is arriving at the conclusion of what is right through thorough observation and gathering of evidence. Argument utilizes the rhetorical techniques of persuasion in order to present evidence effectively.
ArgumentPersuasionPropaganda Goal Discover the “truth”Promote an opinion on a particular position Offer “political advertising” for a particular position that may distort the truth or include false information Methods Considers other perspectives on the issue Offers facts that support the reasons (in other words, provides evidence) Predicts and evaluates the consequences of accepting the argument May consider other perspectives on the issue Blends facts and emotion to make its case, relying often on opinion May predict the results of accepting the position, especially if the information will help convince the reader to adopt the opinion Focuses on its own message, without considering other positions Relies on biases and assumptions and may distort or alter evidence to make the case Ignores the consequence of accepting a particular position General Technique Offers good reasoning and evidence to persuade an audience to accept a “truth” Uses personal, emotional, or moral appeal to convince an audience to adopt a particular point of view Relies on emotions and values to persuade an audience to accept a particular position
The word argument likely stirs thoughts of loud shouting, emotional outbursts, and impassioned speeches. ◦ Argumentation is not a Jerry Springer episode. The true art of argumentation is a cool, calm, and collected approach to presenting ideas in a data that helps the reader see the truth in the debate. ◦ Argumentation is a well-managed court case. While one could be confused by “arguments” that they have had before: One can see that there is a clear and definitive structure to a quality argumentative case. Today we’ll discuss this
Central Claim/ Thesis: The most general statement in the argument that you are asking people to accept. eg “Michelle may carry too much debt.” A thesis is the central idea of the essay. In an argumentative essay, the thesis is a definitive stance on the controversial matter being debated. It is important to note that in an argumentative essay, the thesis must be debate-able. ◦ If there is not an opposing side to the thesis, you are not writing an argumentative essay.
Claim: A general statement in the argument that you are asking people to accept that supports your thesis. eg “Michelle has too many credit cards.” Claims are smaller positions that support the thesis by showing the thesis to be true. Once again, a claim is a statement that can be argued against. Claims function as topic sentences for your body paragraphs. ◦ That is to say, the rest of the information in the same paragraph should show the claim to be true
Evidence/Data: The support for the claim. eg “Michelle has 3 credit cards in her purse.” Evidence shows the claim to be true. Evidence must be factual. It must be true. Because the evidence is true it supports the truthfulness of the claim. Evidence can take the form of many things: ◦ Statistical Evidence- Numbers, research, etc. ◦ Testimonial Evidence- expert opinion ◦ Anecdotal Evidence- stories ◦ Analogical Evidence- a comparable example to better illustrate the argument.
Reasoning/Warrant: Explains why the evidence/data supports the claim (shows the relationship between the two) eg “There is a relationship between the number of credit cards and personal debt. For example, Kim and Devaney (2001) cite a positive relationship between the number of credit cards a person has and a consumer’s debt.”
Thesis Claims Evidence Warrants
Because________________(EVIDENCE)________________ __________________________________________________ ________________________________________ (Word therefore can be stated or implied – see example below) ___________________________________, therefore ___________________(CLAIM)________________________ __________________________________________________ ___________________, since ___________(WARRANT)____________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ _____________________________________.
Because our arguments must be arguable, there is always another side to consider in argument. Good argumentation always acknowledges the existence of the other side of the story while still refuting the truthfulness of the opposition. Inability to mention the other side of the argument tips the reader off that the writer is not executing a reliable argument.
Counter Claim: Objectively reporting on opposing perspectives; both you and your opposition will make counter claims. eg “Perhaps Michelle has chosen to open 3 credit accounts in order to establish a positive credit history.” At some point, we should acknowledge the opposition and their claims in our paper. We do this by carefully presenting the opposing claims (“The opposition may say..”) and then launching a counterclaim (“However..”) attacking the truthfulness of the opposition’s claim. A counterclaim is essentially a statement saying the opposite of the other side’s claim. Evidence should then be used to show the counterclaim is true. Finally, the author should warrant and show reasoning between
Acknowledge opposition claim Counter Claim- Refute opposition claims Evidence showing counter claim is true Warrant showing connection between evidence, counterclaim, and falseness of opposition
The Whole Argument Michelle may carry too much debt. She has 3 credit cards in her purse. There is a relationship between the number of credit cards and personal debt. However, it could also be that Michelle has chosen to open 3 credit accounts in order to establish a positive credit history.
Identify where the Claim, Evidence, Warrant, Counter Claim are within this argument: In some cases it can take up to 28 years for a legal immigrant to obtain US citizenship (Rachel Maddow Show, 2013). An effective immigration system rewards those who take the legal pathway with a quick route to citizenship. The US immigration system needs to be reformed. However, others have argued that the value of US citizenship justifies a lengthy process.