Presentation on theme: "Everything is an Argument!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Everything is an Argument! So what is argumentation?
2 Writing can be divided into Modes or “Types” MODES/TYPESof writingNarrativeExpositoryPersuasiveAnalyticalTechnicalMETHODSGood Writing=Multiple ModesFORMS
3 Persuasive MODE Characteristics : Forms: ARGUMENTATIVE METHODExample One:Which is more important: what a person thinks or what a person doesCharacteristics :Clear position establishedAll ideas are strongly related to positionControlled, specific reasons and evidenceWriter recognizes opposing or alternate points of viewPersuasive tone throughoutForms:AdvertisementsEditorialsLetters to the editorPersuasive essaysPersuasive speechesPropaganda (primarily political)Reviews (books, movies, products)
4 Rhetoric is the power of language and its effects Where do we begin?Rhetoric is the power of language and its effectsEssence of rhetoric is built upon Aristotle’s Rhetorical Triangle
5 Context Speaker Occasion Tone Tone Audience Subject PURPOSE L ETHOS LOGOSAudienceSubjectPATHOS
6 Academic Conversation Writing well means entering into a conversation with othersThe underlying structure of effective academic writing – and of responsible public discourse – resides not just in stating our own ideas, but in listening closely to others around us, summarizing their views in a way that they will recognize, and responding with our own ideas in kindWhat others are saying and thinking motivates our writing and gives it reason for beingAs a student and a writer you need to enter conversations and debates that surround you
7 “They Say” ~ “I Say”Effective persuasive writers do more than make well-supported claims (“I say”); they also map those claims relative to the claims of others (“They say”)Writing asks students not simply to keep proving and reasserting what they already believe, but to stretch what they believe by putting it up against the beliefs of our increasingly diverse, global society, to engage in the reciprocal exchange that characterizes true democracy.Gerald Graff & Cathy Birkenstein
8 The Basics of Argumentation It is a mode of writing intended to gain a reader’s agreement using the powers of reasoning and logic.Arguments must be supported by evidence.Evidence may include examples, personal, experience, statistics, research, expert testimony.An argument can be spoken, written or visual as long as it expresses a point of viewPoint of view is often termed the assertion/claim/thesis.
9 What are the Necessary Ingredients of an Argument? Introduction:Must state your assertion/claim/point of view/thesisIntroduce the ideas that motivate your response (“They say”)Concession:Recognize and acknowledge in more depth the opposing point of viewReasonsWhy do you believe what you believe?Support each reason with evidenceConfirmation/Evidence:Research, personal experience, examples, statistics, expert testimonyConclusion (summation):Restate your assertion in response to the ideas of others that motivated you to write your responseAmplify your best ideasOffer a solution/compromise (where applicable)
10 Keep in mind…The ability to enter complex, many-sided conversations has taken on a special urgency in today’s diverse, post 9/11 world, where the future for all of us may depend on our ability to put ourselves in the shoes of those who think very differently from us.Therefore, we should learn to carefully and effectively listen to others, including those that disagree with us, and then engage with them thoughtfully and respectfully.
11 Ethos How to recognize Ethos Language appropriate to audience An ethical or value-based appealHow to recognize EthosLanguage appropriate to audienceSincere, fair minded presentationCorrect grammarEthos is the "ethical appeal” or persuasive appeal of one's character, especially how this character is established by means of the speech or communication.Draws upon the audiences’ virtue, morals and prudence.The EffectShows the speaker as a reliable, respectful source through the speaker’s respect for the audience’s values
13 Pathos How to recognize Pathos Emotionally loaded language An appeal to emotionsHow to recognize PathosEmotionally loaded languageEmotional tonePersonal storiesVivid descriptionPathos is the appeal to emotion. That is, how well the writer taps into the reader's emotions.Many times, this appeal is how a writer will make an argument "matter" to readers.The EffectCreates an emotional, impulsive response
15 Logos How to recognize Logos Factual data and statistics Definitions An appeal to logicHow to recognize LogosFactual data and statisticsDefinitionsQuotationsOpinions of an expert or authorityLogos is the appeal to reason or "logical appeal”. That is, how well the reader uses the "text" of his own argument and evidence.Effective arguments will probably include facts, statistics, testimony, evidence and other supporting details to back up the author's claims.The EffectCreates a rational, reasonable, logical response