3 Structure (overall) Introduction and claim (thesis) Writer’s position (evidence from research)Summary of opposing viewsResponse to opposing viewsConclusion/call to actionIt is OK to give the opposing viewpoint FIRST and then respond to it; after this, you would move into proving why your opinion is RIGHT
4 Introduction Attention grabber—a memorable scene or anecdote Explanation of the issueGive enough background info to help audience understand the problemThesis statementYour introduction can be long if need be—one to several paragraphs
5 Presentation of Writer’s position Main body of essayPresents and supports each reason in turnThis is where you present your researchEach reason should be tied to a value or belief held by the audience
6 Summary of Opposing Views Summary of views differing from your ownMake sure the summary is fair and complete
7 Respond to Opposing Views Refute—prove to be false or erroneous; to prove to be in errorShow weaknesses in the opposing argumentConcede—to acknowledge something to be true, just, or properYou can say that the opposition’s argument contains some valid points
8 Conclusion Bring essay to a close Sum up the argument Explain the significance of your stance on the issue—why is this important? What have you learned from this research? What are the implications if action is not taken?Call to action
10 How to Write a Thesis Statement What is the answer to your research question?Ex. Should killer whales be kept in captivity?Why? What are the top reasons for the answer to your question?Deprives the whales of their role in natureCauses emotional problems that make them unpredictable and violentIt’s cruel
11 Sample Thesis Statement The practice of keeping killer whales in captivity should be stopped because it deprives them of their role as top predator, it causes severe emotional problems that lead to violence, and it is simply a cruel practice.
12 Skeleton Outline Take a moment to make a quick outline for your paper. Thesis statement, then the three main points from your research will be your main topics in your paperIn our practice thesis statement, our main points will beDeprives the whales of their place in the ecosystemEmotional problems that lead to unpredictability and violenceIt’s a cruel practice
13 Arranging your Notecards In easybib, write your thesis statement in the space provided.Then, drag and drop your notes in the order you will use them in your paperIf you are using actual notecards, then arrange them in the order you wish to use them and make a stack
14 Writing Your Paper Begin writing your paper Write an introduction and make your thesis statement the last sentence of your introduction
15 Topic SentencesYou need to have a strong topic sentence to introduce your main pointsRefer to your thesis statement/outlineEx. One of the main reasons that the practice of keeping killer whales in captivity should be discontinued is that it deprives the whales of their place as top predator in the ecosystem.
16 Proving Your PointsUse your notecards to prove the main points in your thesis
18 How to CiteAlways use author’s last name and page number (if using a book)Ex. The climber recalls problems he encountered when attempting to climb Devil’s Thumb, including “a ribbon of frozen meltwater had ended three-hundred feet up and was followed by a crumbly armor of frost feathers” (Krakauer 143).Anything you paraphrase must also be cited. If you are not sure if you need to cite it, then cite it.You have to cite anytime you have a new topic or a different idea, even if it is by the same author. If this occurs, then just cite the page number, not the author’s name.
19 Citing From Data BasesIf there are no page numbers, then just use the author’s last name.(Krakauer)If there is no author, then use the first work in the title.Ex: if your title is “Effects of Mercury in Fish,” then you would use (“Effects”) as your citation
20 Block QuotesIf you have a direct quote in your paper that is longer than 4 typed lines, you must block quote it.You hit enter to begin the quote on a brand new line, and then you indent on that line 10 spaces. Hit the tab key two times to achieve this. Then you type to the end of the line, then hit tab two more times for each new line.At the end of the quote you put a period, then you cite the author’s last name and page number in ( ) with no period at the end. Ex. “This is the end of my blocked quote by an amazing author.” (Krakauer 82)
21 ReminderEach notecard should be one citation in your paper.
23 Introducing Standard Views Use these to introduce broad ideas about your topicConventional wisdom has it that ______________.Americans today tend to believe that ___________.Many people assume that _____________________.It is often said that ____________________.
24 Introducing an Ongoing Debate In discussions of ____________ (topic), one controversial issue has been ____________. On the one hand, _______________ argues ____________. On the other hand, ___________ contends _____________. Others even maintain ____________________. However, the most reasonable way to look at this is ___________________.
25 Another ongoing debate template When it comes to the topic of ______________, most people readily agree that ______________. Where this agreement usually ends, however, in on the question of _____________________. Whereas some are convinced that ______________________, others maintain that______________________.
26 Capturing an author’s opinion X acknowledges that _____________________.X agrees that __________________.X argues that __________________.X denies that __________________.
27 Introducing Quotations X states , “____________.”X agrees when she writes, “_______________.”
28 Disagreeing, with Reasons X’s argument is weak due to the fact that he overlooks _____________________.X contradicts herself with ____________________.By focusing on __________________, X overlooks the deeper problem of ______________.
29 Making concessions while still standing your ground Proponents of X are right to argue that _____________. But they exaggerate when they claim that __________.While it is true that __________________, it does not necessarily follow that _________________.