Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Strategies for Argumentation Copyright 2006 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved. ReadWriteThink.org materials may be reproduced for educational purposes."— Presentation transcript:
Position Statement Example: Chocolate is one of the best snacks because it is full of antioxidants, it can provide a much needed energy boost, and it is widely available and generally affordable. The writer’s proposition; his or her claim or opinion regarding a subject.
Logical Appeal (Logos) Example: A Snickers bar has 280 calories and 30 grams of sugar. That’s not very healthy. Appeals to reason, not emotion. Logical appeal sites facts, statistics, examples, anecdotes, and expert opinion.
Research Example: A recent study found that students who watch TV during the week don’t do as well in school. Use reliable research in finding your facts to help make your argument seem convincing.
Expert opinions Example: Former U.S. president Bill Clinton thinks that junk food should be taken out of vending machines. Important people or experts can be included in logical appeal to make your argument seem more convincing.
Emotional Appeal (Pathos) Appeals to the audience’s emotions. Emotional appeal often sites personal stories and experiences and uses words with specific, strong, connotative meanings—words that appeal to specific emotions and have strong positive or negative meanings associated with them. Emotional appeal should be used carefully. Too much emotional appeal may make the audience feel that the writer or speaker is exaggerating or misleading. Example: Your donation could help get this helpless and abandoned puppy off the street and into a good home!
Ethical Appeal (Ethos) Example: Some health professionals may argue that chocolate is not a healthy snack because of the high calories. However, many chocolate snacks are made with all natural ingredients. Appeals to the opposition. Ethical appeal acknowledges the other side of the argument. It identifies opposing views and responds to them with rebuttals (the writer’s answers to objections ).
Rhetorical Moment (Kairos) Example: If you don’t do something today, who knows how many more nights this puppy will have to spend alone and homeless? The rhetorical moment (the "when" and the "where," the time, the place and the social and personal circumstances in which persuasion takes place). The opportune moment to convince your audience that this issue is so important they must act now.