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The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition THE MIDDLE AGES & THE RENAISSANCE UNIT 1 – PART 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition THE MIDDLE AGES & THE RENAISSANCE UNIT 1 – PART 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition THE MIDDLE AGES & THE RENAISSANCE UNIT 1 – PART 2

2 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition PRELUDE 2: EARLY MIDDLE AGES THE CULTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE

3 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition “Hearing” from The Lady and the Unicorn tapestry (late 15th century)

4 PRELUDE 2: MIDDLE AGES (476 – 1460) ALSO CALLED THE “MEDIEVAL PERIOD” Fall of Roman Empire Growth of Christianity (Roman Catholic Church) Fuedal Society – clergy, nobility, and peasant classes Illiterate except clergy (monks – monasteries, nuns - convents) “Patronage” (support, employment) for music by the Church Art style = symbolic, impersonal, iconic The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Early Middle Ages (to 1000)

5 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition SACRED MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES CHAPTER 12

6 CHAPTER 12. SACRED MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES The Mass Ordinary of the Mass 5 parts of the worship service that do not change – EVER! Latin (Vatican II, 1932 – 1965) Proper of the Mass 5 parts of the worship service that could be altered Would be changed according to feast days, holidays, baptisms, weddings, funerals, etc The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

7 ORDINARY OF THE MASS Kyrie (Greek) Lord have mercy Christ have mercy Lord have mercy Gloria Glory to God in the highest and in Earth, peace to men of goodwill. Credo Literally, “I Believe” The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

8 ORDINARY OF THE MASS Sanctus Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. Agnus Dei Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Lamb of God. Grant us peace. The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

9 CHAPTER 12. SACRED MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES First written music Texture: Monophonic (choral with no accompaniment) Rhythm: Nonmetric Responsorial (soloist, then chorus) Harmony: church modes (‘modal’) Latin text - syllabic, neumatic, and melismatic The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Gregorian Chant (plainchant, plainsong) Hildegard of Bingen, Alleluia, O virga mediatrix

10 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Gregorian Chant Notation

11 TEXT SETTINGS FOR CHANT Syllabic: one note for each word or syllable example – Row, Row, Row Your Boat Neumatic: two to four notes per syllable example – higher range of middle section - Hildegard, Alleluia Melismatic: many notes per syllable example - ‘Gloria’ from Angels We Have Heard on High example - opening of Hildegard, Alleluia (below) The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Melismatic

12 HILDEGARD OF BINGEN German (Holy Roman Empire) Founded her own convent Scholar: writings on science, medicine, religion, philosophy, poetry, and music The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

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14 (NOTRE DAME) ORGANUM Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris First polyphonic music (non-imitative) The development of precise rhythm and pitch notation Often based on pre-existing chants (“cantus firmus”) 2-part music by Leonin, 3rd and 4 th parts by Perotin The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris (1163–1235) Notre Dame School, Guade Maria virgo

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17 PRELUDE 2: THE LATE MIDDLE AGES THE CULTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE

18 PRELUDE 2: LATE MIDDLE AGES Feudal society ending Modern Nation/States, developing (France, England, etc.) Opening of East & West (trade, cultural exchange) Crusades Cities & first Universities (centers of art and culture) Rising influence of Royal Courts – Second source of “patronage” The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

19 SECULAR MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES CHAPTER 13

20 CHAPTER 13. SECULAR MUSIC - LATE MIDDLE AGES Ars Nova (new art) – music style first in France, then Italy Minstrels (ie: troubadours, trouveres, etc.) Secular dance - instrumental, improvised, instruments not specified Secular songs (ie: chanson) – settings of poetry, may be monophonic or polyphonic The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

21 MAUCHAUT French Employed by church and royal courts Composed “Notre Dame Mass” (First complete polyphonic setting of Ordinary) Sacred music and secular songs (chanson) The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Mauchaut, Pius qu’en oubli (Chanson)

22 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition (continued on next page)

23 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

24 PRELUDE 2: THE RENAISSANCE THE CULTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE

25 PRELUDE 2: THE RENAISSANCE Renaissance – “rebirth” or “renewal” – began in Italy. Destruction of Constantinople – scholars, artists fled west. The “awakening of intellectual awareness” and the “beginning of the modern era (in Western society)” Humanism – focus on human achievements (science, discovery, ideas, reasoning) Secularization - focus on daily life, as opposed to religious ideas Interest in ancient Greece and Roman culture, art, philosophy The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

26 PRELUDE 2: RENAISSANCE World exploration (ie: Columbus) Scientific discovery (ie: Galileo) Invention of Printing Press: increased musical literacy, ‘amateur’ musician’ - (merchant or middle & upper classes) music in home Art – realism (expressive face, poses) sense of motion and drama, the human nude in sculpture, (ie: daVinci, Michelangelo) Music as an ‘expressive’ art. The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci

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28 The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition RENAISSANCE SACRED MUSIC CHAPTER 14

29 CHAPTER 14. RENAISSANCE SACRED MUSIC The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition the Golden Age of “a-cappella” singing (choir or voices without instruments) imitative polyphony dominant (with other textures) some based on “cantus firmus” (pre-existing melody) harmony = modal but with fuller chords

30 CHAPTER 14. JOSQUIN Singer Franco-Flemish (northern France) Employed royal courts & church - Duke of Ferrara – northern Italy, Papal Choir – Rome, late in life – returned to France *Motets, masses, and secular chansons The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

31 CHAPTER 14. MOTET Most important genre of early polyphonic music Sacred music (during the Rennaisance) Timbre: SATB choir – ‘a-cappella’ Texture: mostly polyphonic (imitative) with some homorhythmic The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

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34 14. RENAISSANCE SACRED MUSIC THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFORMATION Text in the vernacular (common language) More “congregational singing” Hymn tunes - simple melodies, homophonic texture, (ie: Bach) Pure vocal music (no instruments) Text in the traditional Latin No secular tunes/influences Clarity of text - simplified textures (ie: Palestrina) The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition (Protestant) Reformation (Martin Luther) Counter-Reformation (Council of Trent)

35 CHAPTER 14. PALESTRINA Italian, organist, and choirmaster Employed – St. Peters Basilica and Sistine Chapel Mostly sacred music Mass – the liturgical music of Roman Catholic Church, (approved by the Council of Trent) also motets, some secular madrigals Style: Timbre =‘a-cappella’ (5 or 6 voices in the choir) Texture = mostly polyphonic with other textures The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria

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38 RENAISSANCE SECULAR MUSIC CHAPTER 15

39 CHAPTER 15. RENAISSANCE SECULAR MUSIC Professional musicians: courts and civic functions Merchant-class amateurs: music in the home Instrumental dance music (instruments not specified) Vocal music : Chanson and “Madrigal” The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

40 15. RENAISSANCE SECULAR MUSIC THE ITALIAN MADRIGAL Madrigals began in Italy Text: based on a secular poem Aristocratic court entertainment Timbre: a few solo voices (ie: quartet) “Word Painting” - music style reflecting the meaning of the text The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

41 WORD PAINTING EXAMPLES FROM MONTEVERDI “A UN GIRO SOL” (AT A SINGLE TURNING GLANCE) The breeze laughs all about The sea becomes calm The sky becomes more radiant I alone am sad and weeping, doubtless on the day you were born, so cruel and wicked, my death was also born. The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

42 CHAPTER 15. RENAISSANCE THE ENGLISH MADRIGAL “Elizabethan” age of literature (ie: Shakespeare) Simpler and lighter in style/story, cheerful, humorous Refrain syllables (fa-la-la) Word-painting (examples - Farmer “Fair Phyllis”) The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

43 CHAPTER 15. RENAISSANCE THE ENGLISH MADRIGAL John Farmer Active in Ireland and England Organist and choirmaster English madrigals & songs The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition Farmer, Fair Phyllis Typical pastoral scene, by Zick

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45 SUSATO: THREE DANCES Susato: Belgium composer Set of 3 rondes (rounds) Performed by a wind band (instruments not specified) Each section in Binary form (A-A-B-B)(C-C-D-D)(E-E-F-F) The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

46 15. RENAISSANCE SECULAR MUSIC The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition

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