2Peasant Male, Peasant Female, Noble-Woman, Life in the Middle AgesPeasant Male, Peasant Female, Noble-Woman,Nobleman, Monk, Nun
3Life in the Middle Ages: Homes Most homes were damp, cold, and darkWindows were very small to allow only small amounts of lightPrevents theft as wellMost homes only had one or two rooms
4Life in the Middle Ages: Homes Wealthy homes were generally larger and highly decorated with blankets and throws.Includes many colors
5Life in the Middle Ages: Government Small communities were ruled by a King or a Lord.
6Life in the Middle Ages Exploration Religion and Education Time of War ArtandLiterature
7Time of War Crusades: The crusades lasted from the 11th to 13th centuries. It was a religious war between theEuropean Christians and the Middle EasternMoslems. The Europeans eventually failedto win what they termed the “Holy Lands.”Feudalism: A system of hierarchy during the MiddleAges. The king lent land to noblemen. Inreturn, the noblemen supplied knights forbattle. The knights, servants, and peasantsgave loyalty to the lords.
8Traveled to the “New World.” ExplorationMarco PoloTraveled from Europeto China and back. Heopened up trade with Chinafor silk, spices, and new ideas.Christopher Columbus1492Traveled to the “New World.”
9Churches and Universities Early, the church was the center for learning.Priests, monks, and nuns were amongthe only people who could read.Later, universities were founded. They taughtreligion, law, medicine, and the arts.Notre Dame Cathedral
10Arts and LiteratureLeonardo da VinciMichalangeloRaphael
11Arts and Literature Chaucer wrote the famous Canterbury Tales. William Shakespeare wrote famous works like Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet.
12Medieval Composers Leonin 1150’s - 1201? He was choirmaster of the Cathedralof Notre Dame in the 1100’s.He composed important choral worksfor the entire church year.Magnus Liber - Alleluya
13Medieval Composers Perotin He was a choirmaster at the Cathedral ?He was a choirmaster at the Cathedralof Notre Dame in the 1100’s.He held the position of choirmasterAfter Leonin.He is credited with inventing the motet.Viderunt omnes
14Medieval Composers Hildegard Von Bingen Ordo Virtutum She was elected a Magistra by her fellownuns in 1136.She founded monasteries, wrote theological,botanical and medicinal texts, as well asletters, liturgical songs, and poems.Ordo VirtutumShe wrote over 100 letters, 70 poems,and 9 books. She composed 72 songs.
15Medieval Composers Guillaume de Machaut Messe de Notre Dame 1305-1377 He was a French composer who workedat the age of twenty for a warrior king.He traveled much of his life around Europe,accompanying the king to military battles.At the time of his death, he was consideredOne of the most important religious leadersOf his time. In fact, he composed oneof the oldest surviving masses writtenin four parts.Messe de Notre DameHe is best-known for his secular music.
16Merchants and professionals began to gather wealth. The word Renaissance means “rebirth.”Merchants and professionals began to gather wealth.With their leisure time, they began to broaden their interests beyond church music and art. This resulted in the “rebirth” of interest in the values of Greek and Roman cultures.
17Music c. 500 - 1600 Sacred: Music composed for the church. Gregorian Chant / PlainchantPolyphonyMotetCanon / RoundSecular: Non-church (popular) musicMusic of the troubadoursMusic of the jongleurs
18Sacred Music Gregorian Chant Also known as Plainchant. Named after Pope Gregory IVery simple songs.A single line melodyNo accompanimentSung by men’s choirs or soloistsNo instrumentsSung in LatinMusic and rhythm were simple. Almostas if the the singer was speaking the words.
19Sacred Music Polyphony: Musicians began singing different parts instead of everyone singing the same notes.Motet: A short religious piece that might have plainchantfor one line, a love song in another part and ahymn for a third. The different parts can evenbe sung in different languages.Canon: Singers perform the same music but come inat different times.
20Secular Music Troubadour: Members of nobility, many were knights. They composed musical poems about courtly loveknightly adventures, and chivalry but often leftthe performance of their works to lessaristocratic musicians.Jongleur: Working musicians. They wandered from townto town. They sang, played instruments,danced, juggled, and performed magic tricks.
21Medieval and Renaissance Instruments RecorderLuteCrumhorn
22Medieval and Renaissance Instruments SackbutSerpentViol
23Renaissance Music Changes in the Renaissance Period… Composers began writing both sacred and secularmusic.Kings and lords began employing court musicians.Books began to be printed. By 1476, books of musicbegan being printed. Anyone who could read them couldnow play the music.Because of the improvements to instruments,composers began writing music for instruments only.
24Renaissance Music New popular form of music… Madrigals: vocal works about great emotions such aslove and despair. Madrigals were usually unaccompanied vocal works with four orfive parts.Music of the Renaissance began using chordal harmony.It began sounding more like the music of today.
25Renaissance Composers Josquin des PrezA French composer who began his career as asinger in a cathedral when he was 19 years old.He was considered one of the best composersof the time.Remind the students that this last page of their packet is the same as before, write the person’s name, the dates that they lived and the song title.He composed music that used chordsand harmonies that made it sound morelike the music of today.Ave Maria
26Renaissance Composers Giovanni da PalestrinaAn Italian composer who spent hisentire career in Rome, working forThe Catholic Church.He is considered one of the greatmasters of the Renaissance style.He composed 104 masses, 373 motets,And many religious madrigals. He alsoComposed almost 100 secular madrigals.Motet Hodie Christus Natus Est
27Renaissance Composers Thomas MorleyHe was an English composer.He composed many madrigalsabout love and nature.Hark Alleluia
28Renaissance Composers William Byrd1539/He was an English composer of the lateRenaissance.He is considered to be one of the great mastersOf the Renaissance. Some consider himThe greatest English composer of all time.He worked in the Royal Chapelof Queen Elizabeth.Cantiones Sacrae
29History of Music Notation 600’s - Church worried that music would be lostbecause there was no method of musicnotation.Accent Marks ( / \ ^ )They were the first form of notation.They told the singer that the music wentup or down. They were meant to helpthe musician remember the melody butthey did not give exact information.The singer needed to know the music first.NeumesThey were marks at particular heightsover the words of the song. They told thesinger which pitch to sing. However, they were notwritten on a staff so they did not give exact pitch.Students will need the new page to fill out the remainder of the notes.
30History of Music Notation Guido d’ArezzoHe was an Italian monk and music teacher.He invented the music staff, which showed the specificpitches of notes.He created the symbols for flats and natural notes.
31History of Music Notation By 1200’sEveryone began using the 5 line staff.By about 1400The modern system of note and restlengths became standard.1500’sBarlines, time signatures, and tempomarks and sharps were created.By 1750Notation was fully developed.