Presentation on theme: "Mr. Giesler American History. Topics We Will Examine Jeffersonian Democracy Limited Central Government and Pro States Rights Judicial powers strengthen."— Presentation transcript:
Jeffersonian Democracy Abandoned Aristocratic Democracy TTYN: What is an Aristocrat? Jefferson: The Founder of American Democracy? Wrote the Declaration of Independence Led and largely created the Republican Party, by which the Federalists, who were anti-democratic, were unseated First President who believed in democracy and sought to establish it Jefferson – A democrat for the people, not of the people!
Jeffersonian Democracy Thomas Jefferson biographer once wrote that “there were probably twice of thrice many four-horse carriages in Virginia before the revolution as there are at present time; but the number of two-horse carriages may be ten, or even twenty times as great as at the former period.” TTYN: What does this statement illustrate? The Progress of Democracy
Jeffersonian Democracy TTYN: Read the passage below. What is Jefferson telling the reader? The ‘real’ meaning. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it.”
Jeffersonian Democracy The Meaning of Jefferson’s Democracy When he says “self-evident,” he means it. The essence of virtue is in doing good to others Believed in the innate goodness of man that gives the basis for his liberalism Believed that most men, on the whole, will follow their consciences. For a few exceptions, laws may be necessary; but in the main, liberty is all that is needful for the promotion of human happiness. Favored democracy by the masses Faith in the common man Strict interpretation of the constitution Favored a nation of farmers
Jeffersonian Democracy Clash With Hamilton Hoped plutocracy would evolve into aristocracy Corruption as the best method for causing plutocracy to prevail over democracy Argued that the President and Senators should be chosen for life. leader of the Federalists Hamilton advocated the growth of manufactures Child Labor was good Dislike democracy Admired England and aimed at making America resemble Jefferson stood for democracy and agriculture, Hamilton for aristocracy and urban wealth
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts TTYN: What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? The Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 the United States was at the brink of war with France (XYZ Affair) Federalists believed that Democratic-Republican criticism of Federalist policies was disloyal and feared that aliens living in the United States would sympathize with the French during a war. Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws, known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. Raised the residency requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Authorized the President to deport aliens Permitted the arrest, imprisonment, and deportation of aliens during wartime. The Sedition Act made it a crime for American citizens to "print, utter, or publish..any false, scandalous, and malicious writing" about the Government. The laws were directed against Democratic-Republicans, the party typically favored by new citizens
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Whiskey Rebellion Excise tax imposed on whiskey in 1791 by the federal government, farmers in the western counties of Pennsylvania engaged in a series of attacks on excise agents. Jefferson believed that the purpose of government is to protect the “unalienable rights” of its citizens, and that these rights include “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” People have the right to rebel Believed a little rebellion now and then was a good thing “…a medicine necessary for “the sound health of government.” “the first error was to pass it (the whiskey tax); the second was to enforce it; and the third, to make it the means of splitting this Union.”
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Jefferson believed that local government was most important Believed that the emphasis for government should concentrate within the county and state While President, Jefferson slashed government expenditures “I am not a friend to a very energetic government. It is always oppressive.” “Most bad government has grown out of too much government” Reduced the national debt Reduced the size of the military Although Jefferson condemned Hamilton’s Financial Plan, he did authorize to incorporate the United State Bank
Jefferson on Judicial Powers Judiciary act of 1801 (Jefferson repealed Adams appointment of federal judges Appt of Marbury Jud Act of 1789 Compelled court to deliver commissions Marbury v. Madison Congress had no constitutional right to give federal courts the powers of Jud. Act Supreme Court Chief John Marshall Concept of Judicial Review Right of supreme court to determine the validity of laws The courts had the right to nullify an act of congress
Territorial Expansion France forced Spain to relinquish claims to North America interior Louisiana Purchase 1803; cost 15M France sold to help fund Napoleons war Mississippi to the Rockies 13 states will result Lewis and Clark 1803-1806 Missouri to Columbia TTYN: Does the Louisiana Purchase depict Jefferson as an hypocrite? In other words, isn’t this “huge” purchase a symbol of ‘big’ government?