Recap Toussaint captured Capture caused worry and confusion Deal between French and Rebel leaders Dessalines, Christophe, Petion Maroons continue to fight in the mountains Colony returning to normalcy Blacks return to plantations
Leclerc and the resistance Leclerc was Napoleon’s brother in law Arrived with 10,000 troops Including Rigaud, Petion, Boyer Violent methods to subdue rebels Campaign of “terror” Yellow fever Plaguing French troops
Disarming the Rebels Dessalines, Christophe with the French Leclerc seeks to disarm the black rebels Leclerc breaks with Mulatto leaders after Crete-a-Pierrot Maroons keep fighting North Sans-Souci West- Lafortune South Janvier Thomas
Dessalines and Belair Charles Belair-nephew of Toussaint Was politically like Toussaint Saved many whites Belair realized that the uncoordinated efforts of the rebels would not lead to victory Joined the fight and proclaimed himself governor in chief of the rebels Dessalines saw Belair as a threat to his power Had him arrested and executed October 15, 1802
The coming of a unified resistance Leclerc Not trusted by Christophe, Dessalines Slavery restored to French colonies in July 1802 Rebels questioned whether or not they would be returned to slavery Leclerc calls for additional troops Clairveaux- Mulattos worried about return to the racism of old Tactics of French united all sides
Mulattoes and Blacks Dessalines comes to an accord with Petion August 1802 October 11, 1802 Petion and Clairveaux attack Le Cap October 14, 1802 Christophe joins fight October 17,1802 Dessalines heads out to Petite Riviere. Tells supporters to be ready to start another uprising Avoids capture In command of rebel forces. North and the West in rebellion, Southern Mulattoes stay with French.
Leclerc and his forces Leclerc sick with yellow fever 34,000 troops sent by France 24,000 dead from fighting or yellow fever. 8000 in hospitals 2000 fighting November 2,1802 Leclerc dies of Yellow fever. Rochambeau takes command Receives 20,000 new troops from France
Rochambeau Leads war against Blacks and Mulattoes Race war. Whites vs People of color Port Republican War crimes Drowned people in the bay of Le Cap Violences of slavery return. Dogs….
Rochambeau’s Letter to French Directory “If France wishes to retain San Domingue it must sent 25,000 troops in order to kill 30,000 nergoes and negresses.
The French position Whites preferred to live under Toussaint, but reluctantly joined French b/c of whiteness As Rochambeau ran out of money he levied taxes on the whites who rebelled against him. Blacks were thought not to be fighting for independence since they were fighting under French Flag
Women in the fight While most of the writing on the Haitian revolution is about men, women fought too for their liberty. Women were maroons Marie Jeanne Lamarthinere famous woman soldier Gran Toyat- Victoria Montou Dessalines aunt. ○ Taught him how to throw a knife and fight. Marissainte Dédé Brazil- Defile ○ Followed Dessaline’s army throughout the fight for independence ○ Gathered his remains after his death
More women Claire Heureuse- Dessaline’s wife gathered women to help aid injured soldiers on the battlefield Catherine Flon- Sewed the first Haitian flag Sanite, Charles Belair’s wife fought alongside her husband Lead uprising of slaves in Artibonite Vive la libete anba esklavaj
1803, The Final Push Petion unites mulatto leaders behind Dessalines Geffrard established Dessalines’ authority in the South January 1803 Unified effort in North, West and South pushed the French into coastal towns. War in Europe recommenced, British ships created a blockade of Haiti cutting off Rochambeau from reinforcements and supplies from France
Guerilla warfare By Boat Rebels used small boats that traveled around the coast and on rivers They landed, hid ships and attacked French troops, took supplies and killed prisoners. Captured two French ships that had escaped the blockade and killed all people on board
Dessalines: Koupe tet boule kay. Dessalines born 1758 When did he join the fight? Some say he was with Boukman at the beginning of the struggle He might have been with Jeannot and then Biassou By the time Toussaint went to the French Dessalines was with him. Vicious attack on mulattoes in the civil war and Vicious against whites
The Fight Continues May 18,1803-Archaie Dessalines and Petion call meeting of senior officers. Newly created flag was the French flag with out the white. Haitians had control of Anse-a Veau, Jacmel, Saint Marc, and Cayes Geffrard in command Petion and Gabart in command of Artibonite October 1, French surrender P-a-P
The Final Battle November 16 1803, Concerted efforts on Le Cap. Dessalines camp, 27,000 fighters strong sets up camp at Limbe Cap defended by forts Dessalines ordered Christophe to attack them Clairveaux, Capois La Mort- attack Butte Charrier-Horse story Rochambeau Move on to capture Vertiers
End of Fighting November 28, 1803- Rochambeau surrenders troops to British November 29- Dessalines issued initial proclamation of independence French surrender Mole St. Nicolas in December 64,000 French troops sent, few remained.
Independence December 31,1803 Dessalines called general meeting at Gonaives Issued declaration of independence January 1 st 1804 Haiti is officially an independent country Generals and chiefs of the army declare Dessalines supreme leader of the Haiti Commander in Chief