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The Latin American Independence Movement

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Presentation on theme: "The Latin American Independence Movement"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Latin American Independence Movement
SS6H2 The student will explain the development of Latin America and the Caribbean from European colonies to independent nations.

2 Colonization The governments of Spain and Portugal ruled most of Latin America for nearly three hundred years. The American Revolution of 1776 gave Latin Americans the idea that they too could be free.

3 Toussaint L’Ouverture
He was born a slave in the mid-1700s. His father had been a free African who was captured and sold into slavery in Saint Domingue. Toussaint was allowed to learn to read and write by his plantation owner. He became a famous black freedom fighter. He was a major leader of the slave revolts in Saint Domingue (Present Day-Haiti)

4 The French Revolution The French Revolution of 1789
The new French government gained freedom for all free blacks and mulattoes (those of African and European ancestors). Plantation owners in Saint Dominque were furious. In 1791, the French government changed its mind and took back the freedom it had given the blacks and mulattoes.

5 Slave Revolt Toussaint led a slave army and defeated the French troops. By 1793, the French government had abolished slavery altogether. Toussaint lead his men against invading British and Spanish troops. In the end, Toussaint was left in charge of Domingue even though it was officially a French colony.

6 Emperor Napoleon and Toussaint
In 1802, the French emperor Napoleon sent troops to Saint Domingue to regain control . He tricked Toussaint! He was sent to France and placed in prison where he died. Within two years, the people of Saint Domingue declared their independence and renamed their country Haiti.

7 Question: 248 Toussaint L’Ouverture was famous for his role in gaining independence for which country? A. Cuba B. Haiti C. Mexico D. Venezuela

8 Question: 249 Which country’s government imprisoned Toussaint L’Ouverture? A. France B. Great Britain C. Haiti D. Spain

9 Question: 250 Which important goal did Toussaint L’Ouverture want to achieve? A. freedom for the slaves in Saint Domingue B. Improve production on sugar cane plantations

10 Question: 251 Which childhood event allowed Toussaint L’Ouverture to learn ides about freedom and equality? A. His owner allowed him to learn to read and write. B. He made a trip to France.

11 Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar was a leader in the wars for independence in South America. He and other leaders fought against Spanish rule.

12 Simon Bolivar and other leaders wanted independence for all people in Latin America. Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela won their independence through his efforts.

13 Biography of Simon Bolivar
Bolivar was born in 1783, in Caracas, in what is now Venezuela. He was from a wealthy family. He had an excellent education and read many books with ideas on freedom and equality. He lived at the time of the French Revolution and learned of the defeat of the French royal family.

14 Bolivar led different groups of troops against Spanish rule. He fought in the lands that are now Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama. He was able to finally defeat the Spanish in 1824 and end Spanish rule in South America.

15 Bolivia The country of Bolivia was named in honor of Bolivar, and he wrote a constitution to organize the country. Bolivar is known as “The Liberator” in South America. He is also known as the “George Washington of South America.”

16 Simon Bolivar as Dictator
He became dictator and tried to create a single, large South American country called Gran Colombia. It covered the entire northern part of South America. Fights among different groups caused the different countries to break up. Bolivar became infected with tuberculosis and died from the disease in 1830.

17 Grand Colombia Map

18 252. Simon Bolivar was known as the liberator for which people?
A. Indigenous people B. Mexicans C. South Americans D. Spanish soldiers

19 253. Which country got its independence because of Simon Bolivar’s efforts?
A. Canada B. Mexico C. United States D. Venezuela

20 254. Which country’s revolution encouraged Bolivar to fight for independence?
A. France B. Mexico C. Spain D. Venezuela

21 255. Which country did Bolivar and his fellow patriots fight against?
A. France B. Mexico C. Spain D. Venezuela

22 Miguel Hidalgo He is known as the father of Mexican independence.
He was a priest who led a peasant army against the Spanish army in Mexico, which was then called New Spain. His army won some victories, but he did not live to see independence.


24 Biography of Hidalgo He was born in his family saw that he got a good education. He enjoyed reading books with ideas on freedom and equality. He saw that there was no equality for the peasant workers in Mexico. He saw that people born in Spain got special treatment compared to people born in Mexico.

25 He trained to be a priest and worked among the native people and peasants

26 Hidalgo and the Independence Movement
In 1810, France invaded Spain, and the king was removed. This created problems in Mexico. People in Mexico were not sure they supported the new French government. Others did not support the old Spanish government. Hidalgo and several of his friends were a part of a third group that believed it was time for Mexico to be independent.

27 Hidalgo was warned that he was going to be arrested. Those loyal to the French government turned him in. On September 16, Hidalgo gave a speech encouraging freedom for Mexico. Thousands followed Hidalgo and they won many victories against the Spanish. Unfortunately, Hidalgo and his followers did not have many weapons. The Spanish took Hidalgo prisoner. He was tried and executed for treason. He was executed by Spanish soldiers on July 30, 1811. In 1821, Spain withdrew its last troops from Mexico.

28 256. Miguel Hidalgo was known as the father of independence for which country?
A. Bolivia B. Mexico C. Peru D. Venezuela

29 257. What job did Miguel Hidalgo have in Mexico?
A. general B. peasant C. priest D. soldier

30 258. What event caused people in Mexico to begin to think about independent?
A. France took over Spain and removed the king. B. Mexico had many peasants who were unhappy. C. Spain sent additional troops to fight against Hidalgo. D. Thousands of people followed Hidalgo after his speech.

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