Presentation on theme: "Haitian Revolution 1791-1794. Participants Affranchis angered by the denial of rights and by the death of Oge and Chavannes conspirators began using their."— Presentation transcript:
Participants Affranchis angered by the denial of rights and by the death of Oge and Chavannes conspirators began using their slaves to fight against the colonial authorities. May 15 1791, free coloreds born of free parents given equal rights to whites. – Lead to back lash in colony – Fighting in the South and the West- Mulattoes and Whites both used slaves Enslaved – 330,000 of 500,000 born in Africa – Majority from Kongo region – Prisoners of War skilled in military tactics and firearms Maroons Jean Francois, Biassou Spread word and connected slaves on distant plantations Coordinated revolt
Bois Caiman Slaves held meeting on August 14,1791 Boukman Limbe revolt. Burned plantations. – Revolt put down by colonial authorities – Delay in action would foil plans. Bois Caiman revolt August 22,1791 – Vodou ceremony Slaves, over seers, and Maroons attended Pig slaughtered (Dahomey war ritual) – Pact of secrecy – We will not stop until our mission is complete – Claimed independence
Bois Caiman Weapons of the weak… This God who made the sun, who brings us light from above, who raises the sea, and who makes the storm rumble, that God is there, do you understand? Hiding in a cloud, He watches us, he sees all that the whites do! The God of the whites pushes them to crime, but ours wants good deeds. That God who is good orders us to vengeance. He will direct our hands, give us help. Throw away the image of the God of the whites who thirsts for our tears, listen to the liberty in all our hearts
Cont… Beginning of insurrection. Jeannot, Jean Francois, Biassou all at ceremony Was Toussaint there? – Yes and no – No, but he knew about revolt. – Was not part of initial insurrection
Initial Revolt Main fighting was in the North Boukman captured and killed – Head put on a stake Violences – By September 1,000 plantations burned hundreds of whites killed. – Chickens coming home to roost Reprisals by whites against other slaves and Affranchies Fighting in the West and the South – Mulattos, Whites, and slaves
1791-1792 First Civil Commission sent to reestablish order in Colony – Frederick-Ignace de Mirbeck – Phillipe-Rose Roume – Edmond de Saint Leger Proposed peace to Jean-Francois, Biassou if they stopped fighting Rejected by colonial assembly April 4, 1792- Louis XVI gives royal decree grating full rights to all Affranchis (gens de couleurs) Whites and colored begrudgingly came together to fight blacks
Second Civil commission Arrived in September 1792 – Leger-Felicite Sonthonax – Etienne Polverel – 6000 troops and National guard French Revoltuion radicalizing – Commission arrests and deports Royalists Autonomists Racists petit Blancs who resisted new laws Focused attention on slave uprising – Chased Jean Francois and Biassau from camps
Global Repercussions France in European war – England – Spain – Austria All wanted to undermine French Revolutionaries Spain provided the Haitian rebels with supplies. French Royalists in the colony turn to England for aid
Toussaint Louverture Slave at Breda plantation 1743 Fatras Baton Freed at the age of 30 – Father was an African Prince – Spoke Arada (African language) Slave elite – Coachman who was in charge of slaves Medical healer – Learned healing used of plants and herbs from his mother
Toussaint cont… Joined fighters in Dominican Republic – June 1793 – Served under Biassou as an adviser Won a series of battles against the French and Affranchis – Known for ambushes and confusing his adveresaries – Humanity- Whites and Affranchis surrendered to him.
Toussaint comes to power Jean-Francois and Biassou began fighting for power Jeannot- tried and killed by Jean Francois for excessive violence Begins to win the confidence of Spanish leadership. Decisive victiories – Dondon – Ennery – Gonaives – St Marc – Christophe, Moise and Dessalines all in his army. Picks up recruits as he wins May have been promising liberty.
D’esparbes Plot Whites angered at the actions of civil commissions Conspiracy led by governor d’Esparbes. With 42 officers Caught and imprisoned on a ship Rochambeau, General of 6000 troops becomes governor of island. Borel rebellion. Two days of fighting Marquis went to Jacmel and then to Jamaica Rochambeau sent with 1200 troops
Southern Autonomy Expelled all French agents Used slaves in fight with Affranchis Administrative Counsel at Jeremie Rochambeau loses at Desrivaux June 1793 New governor Gibaud – Sent from France with 3000 soldiers – Sided with White colonist – Fought against colonial commissions Approach English with plan for British rule – September 22, 1793 English occupation begins – Mole St-Nicolas, L’Archaie, Leogane, St Marc, Grande Anse.
Freedom June 23, 1793 – Sonthonax promises freedom to all insurgents who fought for France to save Le Cap for the French – Pierrot- Kongo born leader- took offer and expelled British advances August 29,1793- Sonthonax abolishes slavery in the colony Colonists in the South approach English with plan for British rule – September 22, 1793 English occupation begins – Mole St-Nicolas, L’Archaie, Leogane, St Marc, Grande Anse. May 1794- Ratified by French National assembly Toussiant joins the French. Routes Biassou and Jean-Francois