3Saint Domingue’s Racial Breakdown in the 18th Century 20,000-40,000 whites3.5% - 7%30,000 free people of color5%15,000 mulattos2.5%500,000 slaves88%3
4What was the situation in Haiti before 1791? • France controlled the western part of the Island.Near the end of the 18th century, 500,000 people, mainly of western African origin, were enslaved by the French.Colony of Saint Domingue is the most lucrativecolony in the world.French plantation owners were watching theevents of the French Revolution.
5What was Haitian Slavery Like? • The conditions on the island were the worst in the world.• The death rate of slaves was around 50%.• Most died of overwork in the sugar, coffeeand indigo plantations.• Torture of slaves who resisted was common.• Most slaves had memories of freedom in Africa.
6Why did the Slaves Revolt in Haiti First? • Because slaves outnumber whites 10 to 1,slaves were allowed to keep their Africancustoms.• Vodou (Vodon) was widely practicedamong the slaves.• This religion gave the slaves a form ofcultural expression and rallying point forprotest against their oppressors.
7What is Vodou? • Combined elements of Roman Catholicism and tribal religions of western Africa,particularly Benin.• Worshiped a high god, Bon Dieu; ancestors or, more generally, the dead.• Practiced in Haiti, Cuba, Trinidad, Brazil, and the southern United States, especially Louisiana
9How did the Revolt Begin? • The upper, middle, and Mulatto classeswere at odds with each other.• Black slaves rebelled against their ownersin 1791 taking advantage of the situation.– Killed whites and destroyed plantations• Boukman, a Vodou priest, led over one hundred thousand slaves against the vastly outnumbered and infinitely hated French
11What role did Toussaint L'Ouverture play? • Former slave who wanted to ensure therevolution took hold.– 50 year old carriage driver.• Began organizing slaves into military units.• Did not participate in the original uprising.• Organized the military to fight the French,Spanish, and English.– All three countries wanted to control the island and ensure failure of slave revolt.
12How did L'Ouverture beat the French, Spanish, and English? • Joined forces with the Spanish army against theFrench.– rose to high rank within the Spanish army.• When France abolished slavery, he switchedsides.– Promoted to General in the French Army.• Toussaint Louverture ruled the colony as theFrench governor-general.• Forced the British troops to withdraw.– Defeated a mulatto group in the south in a bloodyrace war.
13What happened to L'Ouverture? • Liberated the entire island from slavery butstill demanded the production of sugar andcoffee.– Wanted to rebuild the French/Haitian economy.• Napoleon sought to return Saint Domingueto French control and reinstate slavery.• Sent French force to recapture the island.– L’Ouverture is captured and imprisoned in France.
14How did Haiti gain its independence? • Jean-Jacques Dessalines lead a revolt following the capture of L’Ouverture.• Horrific war broke out where both sidesresorted to mass murder.– Haitians killed all Europeans and French killed all blacks.• Because France could not re-supply theirtroops and suffered fever in their camps, Haiti wins the war in November 1803.