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Luther and his assistant Philipp Melanchton spread Luther’s message The changes proposed in the 95 theses were fundamental therefore the Roman Catholic.

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Presentation on theme: "Luther and his assistant Philipp Melanchton spread Luther’s message The changes proposed in the 95 theses were fundamental therefore the Roman Catholic."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Luther and his assistant Philipp Melanchton spread Luther’s message The changes proposed in the 95 theses were fundamental therefore the Roman Catholic Church could not support it These changes also led to a revolt by the peasants called the Great Peasant Revolt of 1525

4 The Great Peasant Revolt led to a disruption in Luther’s movement so he created the Doctrine of Two Kingdoms Doctrine of Two Kingdoms God has two hands Left= Control of government Right= Control of the divine

5 The Doctrine of Two Kingdoms attracted many German nobles because it gave them the legal standing to crush the peasants The result was that many areas in Northern German princes converted to Lutheranism

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7 Lasted: in central Europe Ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor The Reformation created a loss of power for the Holy Roman Emperor: Charles V To maintain power the Holy Roman Emperor sought help from the Hapsburg Empire (Austria)

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9 Consisted of a series of declared and undeclared wars from Sides Hapsburg (Holy Roman Emperors) and Spain (Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III) Vs. Danish, Dutch, French, and Sweedish

10 In the beginning the Holy Roman Empire made peace with the Lutherans in 1555 called the Peace of Augsburg However, many German princes converted to Calvinism outside of the peace treaty made only with Lutherans

11 This conversion to Calvinism caused a breakdown in the governmental structure of the Holy Roman Empire Therefore the Holy Roman Empire had to strike back to maintain power

12 France Spain Holy Roman Empire (Germany) Bohemia Austria Hungary Poland Sweden Denmark

13 Phases Bohemian Phase: (Czech Republic) Palatinate Phase: (Germany) Danish Phase: Swedish Phase: French Phase:

14 Peace of Westphalia: Oct. 24, 1648 Ended the Thirty Years War The Swedish received large sum of money and land The French received land The Emperor’s power was reduced to null in other territories

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17 Calvinism was accepted by many French converts to Protestantism These converts were called the Huguenots Under Henry IV the Huguenots were given substantial rights by the Edict of Nates

18 After Henry IV the Edict of Nates was revoked Then the persecution of the Huguenots started by the Catholics The persecution began by the Massacre of Vassy

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20 This backlash was headed by the French prime minister Cardinal Richelieu He believed everyone has their place Clergy= Prayer Nobility under the King (Army) Divine Right = King Common People= Pure Obedience Anyone who disagreed was met with severe punishment

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22 After all the bloodshed the Catholic Church decided it may needed to reform Created the Council of Trent by Pope Paul III Pope did not attend the meeting (so not to look weak) Pope sent his closest advisors to make sure his agenda is fulfilled and no power is taken away from the Pope

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24 The council meet for three sessions Achievements The principle that the Pope was supreme in the Catholic Church Make no allowances for Christian Humanism or Liberal Catholicism Improved the quality of bishops Clearly defined Catholic doctrine Greater centralization of government

25 Founded by Ignatius Loyal Son of a rich man who loved women and gambling Fought for Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) Became wounded in a battle and while healing had a vision of the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus Then became a hermit and created the Jesuits, which was accepted by the Pope

26 Constitutions Jesuits were at the disposal of the Pope Wherever they go they must save souls Never accept an archbishop title Wear no special clothing No special mortification (fasting) Excused from communal prayer and mass Make traditional vows Spread Faith = Preaching and spiritual exercises

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28 Lasted Established by Ferdinand II of Aragorn and Isabella I of Castile Purpose: Force conversion to… Jews and Muslims to Christianity Control Protestants Censor Books

29 Offences Witchcraft, Blasphemy, Bigamy (Divorce), Sodomy, and Freemasonry Judged Tribunals Sentencing: Tortured to tell the “truth” Dislocating bones Whipping Burned at the stake Waterboarding


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