Presentation on theme: "Key Terms – The Counter Reformation Counter Reformation Council of Trent Jesuits Spanish Armada Wars of Religion Edict of Nantes Thirty Years War Peace."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms – The Counter Reformation Counter Reformation Council of Trent Jesuits Spanish Armada Wars of Religion Edict of Nantes Thirty Years War Peace of Westphalia Nations Absolutism Divine Right The Spanish Reconquista Ferdinand and Isabella Spanish Inquisition
Background The impact of the Reformation was felt throughout all of Europe as leaders sought to suppress it to maintain their own power while lesser rulers encouraged it to increase their own independence and power. The Catholic Church had to find a way to rebuild its image after having many criticisms about its methods spread throughout all of Europe. This attempt would be known as the Counter-Reformation Pope John Paul II would call the Council of Trent as a means of trying to restore faith in the Church.
The Council of Trent The Council of Trent set out to correct many of the problems that existed within the Church in 1536. Real action would not be taken until 1542. The Council of Trent decreed: Sale of indulgences would end New clergy would be trained Vague Christian doctrines would be clearly defined Mass and other rituals would be said in Latin Latin Vulgate would be the only acceptable version of the Bible The seven sacraments would be reinforced.
Other Changes with the Council As a means of reinforcing the changes brought about by the Council of Trent, other actions were taken: New orders of Christian missionaries were established → the Jesuits would be constructed; they are also known as the soldiers of Christianity as they attempted to spread the word of change to Catholics and Christians everywhere. Missions were now sent to many of the Protestant areas of Europe to counteract the effects of the Reformation.
The Spanish Armada Philip II would send a massive fleet of ships to prepare an invasion of Protestant England in 1588. The Spanish Armada → massive naval fleet intended to soften the British navy and ease invasion. Philip saw Protestant England as a direct rival of Catholic Spain, hence felt that his actions would be supported by the Church. The Armada would be defeated by the smaller British navy due to high winds and poor strategy.
Wars of Religion (France) Wars of Religion (1562- 1598) → wars fought between Catholics and Calvinist Huguenots in France. Huguenots were heavily persecuted for their beliefs and massacres and conspiracies were prevalent for an entire generation. The wars would be ended by the Edict of Nantes in 1598.
Edict of Nantes (1598) Henry V would decree the Edict of Nantes to end the Wars of Religion in France. The Edict of Nantes decreed: Protestants could hold government office Protestants could have limited freedom of worship and access to education. Special courts would be set up to deal with religious differences
Thirty Years War Thirty Years' War → war in Germany that lasted from 1618-1648 that began as a Protestant revolt but evolved into a European religious war. Many countries went into Germany to take part in the war and it resulted in the deaths of many people and the destruction of many towns. The war would be ended by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia was considered a landmark decree because it ultimately ended the religious warfare in Europe that had decimated the major nations. It decreed: Germany would be fragmented into 300 smaller states due to religious difference. Helped in the decline of the Holy Roman Empire Took territories away from Denmark and Austria Gave stronger authority to Catholic France.
The Rise of the Nation-State - Kings who had regained their power from the church, feudal lords, and independence of cities established nations - Nations signify people joined by common backgrounds, cultures, and languages. - By force of will and absolutist principles they were able to consolidate conflicting interests. - Absolutism concentration of power in the hands of one person or a group of persons - Typically used divine right (idea that rulers were chosen by God and could only be held accountable for their actions by Him) to justify their rule
The Spanish Reconquista - The Spanish Catholics began a slow re-conquest of Spanish territories from the Muslims that had resided there since the 8 th Century; this was known as the Reconquista. - The push was led by Ferdinand and Isabella → co-rulers of Spain who pushed the spread of Catholicism in Spain.
The Spanish Inquisition - As a means of ensuring that Spain remained Catholic, the royal family sanctioned trials in which Catholics were proven to be faithful. - Many converts were tested, specifically Jews and Muslims. - If they were suspected of still following their old beliefs, they would be tortured until they confessed to heresy.
Results - The Counter-Reformation and the subsequent wars fought over religion caused great change in Europe. - Many rulers believed that power needed to rest within one person, hence the rise of absolute rule and hereditary succession. - Other areas sought to suppress the spread of new religions through expulsions, inquisitions, and warfare. - Many people will attempt to thwart absolutism as a result of new, more restrictive policies.