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PROTESTANT REFORMATION 1500’S AD a.k.a. The Protestant Revolt.

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Presentation on theme: "PROTESTANT REFORMATION 1500’S AD a.k.a. The Protestant Revolt."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROTESTANT REFORMATION 1500’S AD a.k.a. The Protestant Revolt

2 REMEMBER THE MIDDLE AGES  Struggling with obedience to the Church  Balancing the power between Church & state

3 REMEMBER THE MIDDLE AGES  Lay Investiture, simony  Clergy: celibacy, un-educated clergy  Matters related to the Papacy  Avignon Papacy & Western Schism; Renaissance Papacy  Indulgences, relics  CONCLUSION: We don’t need the Church or the Sacraments or the Papacy; we only need the Word  Return to (what we think is) the ancient Church  Protestant response: get rid of the clergy b/c they only cause problems in the world & in the Church!

4 Precursors & troublemakers: John Wycliffe  Sacraments celebrated by sinful clergy are invalid, and if it is the pope, he ceases to be the pope – SOUND FAMILIAR?  Religious orders are inevitable hindrances to salvation  Rejected the Real Presence of the Eucharist  Sola scriptura - “Bible only”  Holy Mass is NOT Scriptural  A minor problem with sequence of REVELATION  Fatalism – things happen because they must happen  Throws out free will

5 Precursors & troublemakers: John Hus  Influenced by Wycliffe  Excommunicated twice  King of Bohemia supported Hus who exiled Hus’ Catholic opponents  Eventually arrested and burned at the stake – BAD!  Factions within the followers of Hus developed  Descendants of John Hus exist today  Some here in Nebraska

6 Precursors & troublemakers: William of Ockham  William of Ockham – Franciscan (late 13th and early 14th century)  Nominalistc theory: “Ideas cannot correspond to anything in reality.” (philosophy is not consistent with faith) Whole of our knowledge could be an illusion.  Remember St. Thomas Aquinas The faith is reasonable No conflict between faith and reason  From Ockham to Luther is indeed a long road,... but it is a road whose trace is unmistakable. – Philip Hughes

7 The “Reformers”  Martin Luther  John Calvin  Ulrich Zwingli  King Henry VIII

8 Lutheran Revolt: The Indulgence Scandal  Albert von Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mainz, to become a cardinal, borrowed a large sum of money from a wealthy banker.  Priest @ 22, Bishop @ 24, Cardinal @ 27  To repay the loan, Pope Leo X allowed the Archbishop to collect money in exchange for a certificate of Indulgence.  The bishop had priests preach the indulgence to raise money.

9 Lutheran Revolt: The Indulgence Scandal  What of the money collected?  ½ to the bishop  ½ to the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica (Rome)

10 Lutheran Revolt: What is an Indulgence?  The remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sin already forgiven.  (You can be forgiven for breaking a window but “sorry” doesn’t fix the broken window)

11 Lutheran Revolt: Fr. Johann Tetzel  A Dominican priest who “sold” indulgences on behalf of the Archbishop of Mainz (and others) for the right amount of $$$  Problem: no discussion of Confession or conversion

12 Indulgence sold by Johann Tetzel - 1517 “By the authority of all the saints, and in mercy towards you, I absolve you from all sins and misdeeds and remit all punishments for ten days.”

13 Lutheran Revolt: Fr. Martin Luther  German Augustinian Friar  Professor, Monk & Priest  Often constipated (was inspired about “faith alone” while on the toilet”)  Very Scrupulous – imagining sin when none exists or grave sin when the matter is not serious.

14 Lutheran Revolt: KEY DATE IN HISTORY: 10.31.1517  Martin Luther writes the Archbishop a letter including the 95 Theses (complaints)  Wanted the issues discussed & debated  The longer his points remained unresolved  the more justified he felt in his position  The more radical his ideas become

15 Lutheran Revolt: Fr. Martin Luther  Luther’s posting of the 95 theses was NOT MEANT to be a separation from the Church  The PRINTING PRESS allowed mass circulation of Luther’s ideas and criticism of Rome

16 Lutheran Revolt: The Debate Finally Occurs in 1519  Archbishop sends Fr. Johannes Eck to debate Luther  Eck was right, but because Luther was unstable he became radical very quickly  By the end Luther will have dismissed  Papal Authority  Authority of Church Councils  Epistle of St. James  Luther commits himself to:  Justification by Faith alone  Limitation of free will  By the end his views are HERETICAL

17 Lutheran Revolt: In the end…  Luther settles on 3 basic principles  Sola Fidei: Faith Alone  Sola Scriptura: Scripture Alone  Sola Gratia: Grace Alone

18 Lutheran Revolt: Faith Alone  “Faith alone” rejects value of the corporal and spiritual works of mercy as essential to growth in holiness  Catholic response:  “Faith by itself, if it has no works, is DEAD” – James2:17  FAITH REQUIRES WE PUT IT INTO ACTION “Just as a body without a head is dead so faith without works is dead”  “faith working through love” (Gal5:6)


20 Lutheran Revolt: Scripture Alone  Sacred Scripture is the sole authority on Faith and Doctrine  BUT…  How do you explain who put the Bible together?  What if there is a question of something not in Scripture?

21 Lutheran Revolt: Grace Alone  Every good action is a direct result of God’s saving grace  It’s beyond human ability to do good  He rejects one’s ability to freely choose to do good (free will)  Man is a PILE OF DUNG covered by God’s GRACE  On the outside it looks pretty but in the center it’s still full of crap

22 Lutheran Revolt: The Break with Catholicism  Pope Leo X wrote the letter Exsurge Domine, condemning Martin Luther’s erroneous teachings  Gives Luther two months to recant opinions or face excommunication

23 LUTHER’S RESPONSE… He Burnt the Pope’s letter

24 Lutheran Revolt: Break with Catholicism  Luther encourages outright rebellion against the Church  Luther’s ideas would spread  But they would also go to extremes in ways that Luther would never agree with  One help to Luther: the princes of Germany (who don’t like the Pope because of the continuing power struggle) supported Luther

25 Lutheran Revolt: Legislation  1st Diet of Speyer – 1526  Religion of the prince is religion of the people "every State shall so live, rule, and believe as it may hope and trust to answer before God and his imperial Majesty."  2nd Diet of Speyer – 1529  Lutherans protested thus receiving the name “Protestants”

26 Lutheran Revolt: Term: Reformation  The movement which resulted in the division of Western Christianity into Catholic and Protestant faiths

27 John Calvin (1509-1564)  Sola Scriptura  Rejected the Mass and the Real Presence of the Eucharist, & all Sacraments  Advocated very simple church services  Believed in Predestination  God has destined some for heaven and others for hell regardless of what actions they’ve done good or bad

28 Ulrich Zwingli (1484 – 1531)  Catholic priest – failed to live celibacy  Studied humanism…  Left the Faith and became a political leader  Founder of the Reformation in Switzerland  Denied the importance/necessity of the Holy Mass & Real Presence of the Most Holy Eucharist  Melted down chalices and monstrances to make coins

29 Reformation in England  Henry VIII  Married to his brother’s widow  Honored by the Pope as a “defender of the faith” for his book of defense against the Protestants

30 Reformation in England: King Henry VIII & Anglican Church  1527: Henry wants his marriage ANNULLED so he could have a wife that would give him a son.  All children w/Catherine’s die in infancy  He doesn’t want his daughter (who’s married to King of France) to become queen (b/c then he becomes King of England)  Pope’s representative said NO!

31 Reformation in England: King Henry VIII & Anglican Church  English Parliament declares that Henry is not responsible to any foreign powers  This makes Henry the head of the Church in England.  This is also a break with the Catholic Church

32 Reformation in England: Act of Supremacy  All would have to swear an oath affirming their recognition of Henry VIII as head of the Church in England  Those that refused were thrown in prison…  Those that spoke against it is were punished by death…

33 Reformation in England: Act of Supremacy  Bishop John Fisher  Bishop of Rochester  The only bishop NOT to take the oath  Beheaded June 22, 1535

34 Reformation in England: Act of Supremacy  St. Thomas More  Chancellor of England  Lifelong Friend of King Henry VIII  Beheaded two weeks after Bishop Fisher on July 6, 1535  “I die the King’s good servant – but God’s first”

35 Reformation in England: The many wives of Henry VIII  Catherine of Aragon: divorced  Anne Boleyn: beheaded  Jane Seymour: died  Anne of Cleves: divorced  Kathryn Howard: beheaded  Katherine Parr: outlives Henry…

36 Reformation in England: Wives and Offspring of Henry VIII  Catherine of Aragon, mother of Mary Tudor (Catholic)  Anne Boleyn, mother of Elizabeth (Protestant)  Jane Seymour, mother of Edward VI (dies at 15)

37 Succession to the Throne  Edward VI (1547-1553)  Extends work of his father  Brings in Reform preachers from continental Europe  Mary I (1553-1558)  Tries to restore Catholicism to England  Marries Spanish prince  For martyring 3 heretical archbishops in Oxford, she is named “Bloody Mary”  Less violent than her father, but not popular among middle class

38 Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1503)  Last among step-siblings to rule (and longest to rule)  Always the religion of the reigning monarch  Bides her time until she takes the throne  Thousands imprisoned for their refusal to give up the faith  Has Catholics deemed traitors  189 Catholic priests executed  At times, she bargains with Catholics, but in the end Catholicism is banned from England and her colonies (including the U.S.)  Venerable English College – Rome  44 of her students would be martyred for the faith in England  130 of her students would be imprisoned or exiled  41 of these students have since been canonized or beatified by the Church.

39 English Priestly Martyrs  St Ralph Sherwin, 1581  St Luke Kirby, 1582  Bl. John Shert, 1582  St Polydore Plasden, 1591  St Eustace White, 1591  St Robert Southwell S.J., 1595  St Henry Walpole S.J., 1595  St John Almond, 1612  St Henry Morse S.J., 1645  St David Lewis S.J., 1679  St John Wall O.F.M., 1679  Bl. Joseph Lambton, 1592  Bl. William Lacey, 1582  Bl. Thomas Pormort, 1592  Bl. Thomas Cottam, 1582  Bl. John Cornelius S.J., 1594  Bl. William Hart, 1583  Bl. John Ingram, 1594  Bl. George Haydock, 1584  Bl. Edward Thwing, 1594  Bl. Robert Middleton, 1601  Bl. John Munden, 1584  Bl. Robert Watkinson, 1602  Bl. John Lowe, 1586  Bl. Edward Oldcorne, 1606  Bl. Robert Morton, 1588  Bl. Richard Smith, 1612  Bl. Richard Leigh, 1588  Bl. John Thules, 1616  Bl. Edward James, 1588  Bl. John Lockwood, 1642  Bl. Christopher Buxton, 1588  Bl. John Woodcock O.F.M., 1646  Bl. Christopher Bales, 1590  Bl. Anthony Turner S.J., 1679  Bl. Edmund Duke, 1590  Ven. Thomas Tichborne, 1602  Ven. Brian Tansfield S.J., 1643  Ven. Edward Morgan, 1642  Ven. Edward Mico S.J., 1678

40 Branches of Protestants:  Luther  Lutheranism  ECLA, Missouri  Zwingli  Anabaptists  Amish, Mennonites  Calvin  Presbyterianism  Anglican  Methodists, Episcopalians

41 IN CONCLUSION  It’s the perfect storm that causes the Reformation throughout Europe  Persons on both sides are to blame for what took place  In the end, many people begin to think of the Church as unimportant, unnecessary, dispensable  Christianity becomes a matter of opinion rather than a matter of truth – this will be disastrous in the centuries that follow…

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