Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation. Reformation Reformation is a movement for religious reform. There were religious and non- religious reasons for reform, but they."— Presentation transcript:
Reformation Reformation is a movement for religious reform. There were religious and non- religious reasons for reform, but they all focused on the Catholic Church.
Reasons for the Conflict with the Catholic Church Church leaders were corrupt and worldly Church offices were sold Sales of indulgences meant you could pay money and have your sins excused Poorly educated priests; some were even illiterate
Non-Religious Reasons Renaissance values of humanism led people to question the church The printing press helped spread ideas that disagreed with the teachings of the church Powerful monarchies challenged the authority and power of the church Kings and Princes were jealous of the Wealth of the church People did not want to pay taxes to the church Pope was viewed as a foreign power because he was in Rome
Martin Luther 1483 – 1546 Former monk and priest Was angered over the sale of indulgences Luther wrote his“95 Theses” (formal statements) and posted them on a church door in Germany He questioned the church and its practices
Luther’s 95 Theses Salvation is achieved by faith alone The Bible is the only authority for Christian life – not the church – all people could communicate directly with God Luther’s ideas were published in German and spread across Germany Soon others began to accept his ideas and formed a separate religious group called the Lutherans Luther refused to recant his ideas and was excommunicated (took away his right to be a member of the Catholic Church) and later tried and declared a heretic (someone who doesn’t follow the beliefs of the church) and outlaw This was the start of the Protestant Reformation!!
John Calvin – Switzerland Believed everyone is sinful and only God can save Believed in predestination (that God knows if you will be saved or not) Those saved were called “the elect” Believed government should be run by the church – theocracy Followers were know as Calvinists
John Knox – Scotland Was a follower of Calvin’s ideas Helped overthrow Queen Mary of Scotland (a Catholic) Set up a theocracy Followers were know as Presbyterians
Henry VIII of England Henry broke with the Catholic Church when the Pope refused to give him a divorce Created the Church of England with himself as the new head of the church Henry took away all Church property Henry’s daughter, Elizabeth I, formally set up the Church of England, the only legal church in England
Counter Reformation As a response to the attacks and new religions, the Catholic Church decided to reform itself. This is called the Counter Reformation.
Outcomes of the Reformation Religious and Social Protestant churches grew and new religious groups developed Catholic Church became more united Greater emphasis on the role of education in promoting religious beliefs
Political Effects of Reformation Decline of the Catholic Church’s moral and political authority led to greater power of monarchs and state power Led to the development of modern nation-states Questioning of beliefs and authority laid the groundwork for the Enlightenment
Martin Luther Luther's frustration with the selling of indulgences led him to write the 95 Theses, which were quickly snapped up, translated from Latin into German and distributed widely. A copy made its way to Rome, and efforts began to convince Luther to change his tune. He refused to keep silent, however, and in 1521 Pope Leo X formally excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church. That same year, Luther again refused to recant his writings before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Germany, who issued the famous Edict of Worms declaring Luther an outlaw and a heretic and giving permission for anyone to kill him without consequence. Protected by Prince Frederick, Luther began working on a German translation of the Bible, a task that took 10 years to complete. The term "Protestant" first appeared in 1529, when Charles V revoked a provision that allowed the ruler of each German state to choose whether they would enforce the Edict of Worms. A number of princes and other supporters of Luther issued a protest, declaring that their allegiance to God trumped their allegiance to the emperor. They became known to their opponents as Protestants; gradually this name came to apply to all who believed the Church should be reformed, even those outside Germany. By the time Luther died, of natural causes, in 1546, his revolutionary beliefs had formed the basis for the Protestant Reformation, which would over the next three centuries revolutionize Western civilization. Based on the reading above, answer the following questions: _____1. What caused Luther to write the 95 Theses? a. Frustration over the sell of indulgencesb. The Edict of Worms c. The Pope in Rome _____2. Luther was excommunicated in 1521. What else happened that same year? a.He wrote the 95 Thesesb. He refused to recant his writingsc. He died _____3. What year did the term “Protestant” first appear?A. 1521b. 1529c. 1546 _____4. How did Martin Luther die?A. Natural causesb. Beheadedc. In jail _____5. Who issued the Edict of Worms? a. Charles Vb. Prince Frederickc. Protestant
The Legacy of King Henry VII 1509 - Henry VIII, becomes king.Henry VIII 1517 - The Protestant Reformation begins Martin Luther nails his "95 Theses“ on the church door in Germany 1521 - Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther 1529 - Henry VIII fails to obtain the Pope's consent to divorce from Catherine of Aragon 1533 - Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII 1534 - Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England 1536 - Anne Boleyn is beheaded because she has not had a son; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour 1537 - Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the future Edward VI 1540 - Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard 1542 - Catherine Howard is executed 1543 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr 1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake 1558 - Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, becomes QueenElizabeth I 1563 – The Anglican Church is established Based on the timeline to the left, answer these questions _____1. What year was Henry VIII excommunicated? a.1521b. 1533c. 1534 _____2. How many wives did Henry VIII have? a. 4b. 5c. 6 _____3. In what year did Henry VIII get married twice? a.1536b. 1537c. 1540 _____4. Why was Anne Boleyn beheaded? a.She could not have a son b.She was excommunicated c.She was too powerful _____5. Henry VIII never had a son. a.Trueb. False _____6. All of Henry VIII’s wives were beheaded. a.Trueb. False _____7. Henry VIII was the supreme head of the Church of England. a.Trueb. False _____8. Jane Seymour was beheaded. a.Trueb. False _____9. Henry VIII opposed Martin Luther. a.Trueb. False _____10. Henry VIII had two wives named Catherine. a.Trueb. False