Presentation on theme: "The Power of Spain Chapter 18: Section 1. Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased."— Presentation transcript:
The Power of Spain Chapter 18: Section 1
Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s.
Goals Identify the challenges King Charles I faced when he became Emperor Charles V (the fifth). Analyze some artistic achievements of Spain’s golden age. Chart the rise and decline of Spain under Philip II.
The King Becomes Emperor 1516 Charles became King Charles I of Spain. Member of the Hapsburg family Absolute Monarch
Terms to Know Absolute Monarch- Ruler whose power was not limited by nobles common people or their reps. Divine Right- Monarch received their power from God and could not be challenged.
Charles V and the Empire His territory –Countries of Belgium, Netherlands, colonies in the Americas Bought votes to become Holy Roman Emperor. –Charles I became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Large empire with lots of enemies –Turks, France, German princes
Charles V and the Empire Wanted Europe to be Roman Catholic –Protestant Reformation threatened his power. Declared Martin Luther an outlaw Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread Martin Luther
Peace of Augsburg After years of religious wars Charles V signed the Peace of Augsburg (right). –Gave each German prince the right to choose whether his state would be protestant or catholic
Success in the Americas Charles V claimed much of the Americas for Spain. –Hernan Cortes (Aztecs) –Coronado (explored the Southwest) Gold from the Americas made Spain super wealthy. Hernan Cortes
Dividing the Empire Charles V gave up his throne in Divided his empire between his brother and his son, (Philip II). Philip II of Spain
The Golden Century Spain had a golden age known as the Golden Century, of artistic achievement. El Greco(right) was one of the most important painters of this period
Diego Velasquez Created masterpieces that portray people of all social classes with great dignity. He was the court painter.
Diego Velasquez Vieja friendo huevos (1618, English: An Old Woman Frying Eggs). National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh.An Old Woman Frying EggsNational Gallery of ScotlandEdinburgh
Juan de ParejaJuan de Pareja (1650)
Portrait of Pope Innocent XPortrait of Pope Innocent X, 1650
Las Meninas (1656, English: The Maids of Hono
Literature Miguel de Cervantes –Don Quixote de la Mancha Sis. Juana Ines de la Cruz –Poet, playwright –Believed women had the right to education
Spain under Phillip II
Spain under Philip II Spain reached its peak during his reign Cause: Gold and silver from their colonies in the Americas.
Religion and Revolt Philip II saw himself as leader of the Counter- Reformation. Married Queen Mary I of England who was also a Catholic –She died before having an heir to the throne Philip and Mary I
Philip II wanted to all the people in all of his territories Catholic. –Clashed with Calvinist Protestantism –Duke of Alba- Court of Blood tortured and executed thousands –Revolt lasted for decades True in 1609 Independent nation of the Netherlands formed
Spain and England
Big rivalry between Spain and England Source?: Spain=Catholic & England = Protestant. –English helped the Dutch in revolt against Spain. –England attacked Spanish treasure ships coming from the Americas.
Sir Francis Drake English Sea Dog Stole gold and silver from Spanish treasure ships for England. Destroyed 30 ships in a Spanish harbor. Made things difficult for the Spanish
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada (1588) 130 ships 20,000 soldiers and sailors Called invincible or unbeatable. Series of battle greatly damaged the Armada. English used fire ships and Spanish fled. Destroyed by storms on the return to Spain
An Empire in Decline Reasons for decline –Philip II had to make every decision. –He used all the gold and silver coming out of Americas to fight wars. –Borrowed money & went bankrupt four times. –Did not develop industries. –Spain gradually declined for the next 100 years.