Learning Objectives Day One: Understand the concepts of “function” and “functional behavior assessment” Consider how FBA/BIP fits within a multi-tiered system of supports Learn the FBA process and practice with selected student Day Two: Develop a BIP for selected student Plan for implementing FBA/BIP within your multi-tiered system
Materials: www.pbisvermont.org www.pbisvermont.org Introduction and Practice in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP) From FBA to BIP Planning Workbook
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkKOqij_Tdw What is the function of this behavior?
Function Based Approach Focuses on: Changing environmental factors instead of fixing the person. It’s about what we as adults will do differently!
Functional Behavior Assessment Is a process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior.
Behavior is predictable. Behavior is changeable. Human behavior occurs within an environmental context, not in a vacuum. Human behavior is learned and can be taught by manipulating aspects of the environmental context--Behavior is a function of the environment Source: Crone, D.A. & Horner, R.H., 2003 Guiding Principles
Behavior is….. any action which is observable and measurable, and has a distinct onset and offset. Defining Problem Behavior (Challenging Behavior)
KickingPinchingCursingHittingSpittingYellingDisrespectDefiance Off task Anger
Example1: Determining Function Given a task, student… 1.Whispers that work is stupid, 2.Writes on papers, 3.Says work is stupid, 4.Throws paper in waste basket, & 5.Leaves room. What is the function of behavior?
Example 2: Given difficult task, student… 1.Says this work is stupid, 2.Pokes student at next table, 3.Argues with student, 4.Tells teacher to butt out, 5.Threatens teacher 6.Runs away from teacher who chases. What is the function of behavior?
At the Foundation of FBA are 3 major tenets about behavior Human behavior is functional Human behavior is predictable Human behavior is changeable…?
Human behavior is changeable 16 Design of effective environmental routines. These routines focus on changing the conditions that set up, set off or maintain problematic behavior FBA switches the focus from “treatment of within-child pathology” to:
Functional Assessment of Behavior A problem solving process that identifies the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior. “A simple functional assessment can be done in your head.”
Who may benefit from a FBA? Students with……. Academic/Behavior data indicates challenge(s) Chronic Misbehavior 3-5 Discipline Referrals for Major Behaviors Frequent Absences Multiple ISS/OSS Don’t understand behavior Other interventions have not been successful
Simple FBA vs. Comprehensive FBA Simple FBACOMP. FBA WhatRelatively simple and efficient process to guide behavior support planning Time-intensive process that also involves archival records review, family-centered planning, and collaboration. May or often includes agencies outside of school WhoSchool-based personnel (e.g., teachers, special educators, counselors, administrators) Professionals trained to conduct functional assessments with students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., Often by school psychologists, behavior specialists)
Simple FBA vs. Comprehensive FBA Simple FBACOMP. FBA For Students that: Exhibit high frequency behaviors that are not dangerous (e.g., not following directions, not completing work) Have received interventions that did not improve behavior Exhibit behaviors that occur in 1 to 2 school routines (e.g., specific classrooms/activities, lunch, recess) Students that: Exhibit dangerous behaviors (e.g., hitting, throwing objects, property destruction) Exhibits behaviors on 3 or more more school routines
How Does the Functional Approach Fit Into Your School’s Multi-Tiered System of Supports?
Six Components of Universal 1.Purpose Statement 2.3-5 Expectations 3.System for Teaching Expectations 4.System for Acknowledging Expectations 5.System for Discouraging Problem Behavior 6.Data-based Decision Making Think Functionally!
Targeted Interventions Implement Universal with Fidelity Inventory Existing Targeted Practices Develop Intervention – ie. Check-in/Check-out Develop Data System to Support Targeted Interventions Match interventions to the function of the behavior!
Examples: Targeted Group Interventions Based on Functions of Behavior Access Adult Attention/Support: Check-In/Check-Out Adult Mentoring Programs Access Peer Attention/Support: Social Skills Instruction Peer Mentoring Self-Monitoring with Peer Support (function: academic task escape) Academic Skills Support: Organization/Homewo rk planning support Homework completion club Tutoring
Jot down a list of your school’s targeted behavior interventions. What function(s) are these interventions trying to meet for students? ACTIVITY 1:
INTENSIVE LEVEL Establish Intensive Team Establish SU Supports for the Intensive Level Establish SU and interagency Develop Capacity for Wraparound Supports Create comprehensive FBA/BIP
School-wide Positive Behavioral Supports 80% of Students Secondary Group Supports 10-15% of Students Individualized Supports 5% of Students Behavior Specialist responsible for 25 FBAs in school of 500 Personnel with “flexible” roles conduct proactive Simple FBA to expand the scope of FBA, prevent intensive problem behaviors, & decrease reliance on specialist. FBA LOGIC MODEL Sheldon Loman, University of Oregon
So who is responsible for conducting the FBA/BIP in your school? How does someone access this FBA/BIP?
Requesting a FBA Teachers & school teams should be able to identify the system for requesting assistance Teachers should be able to identify who to access assistance from The targeted team (EST) will determine when a FBA/BIP referral is necessary based on data
ACTIVITY 2: Using the questions in the workbook, review/develop your school’s process for accessing a FBA/BIP
Reflect on your student…. What is the problem? What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? What do you want him/her to do instead? How can you help this happen more often? How will you know if the problem has been resolved?
FBA Process D.A.S.H. Adapted from Sheldon Loman, University of Oregon 1.Define behavior in observable & measurable terms 2.Ask about behavior by interviewing staff & student – specify routines where & when behaviors occur – summarize where, when, & why behaviors occur 3.See the behavior – observe the behavior during routines specified – observe to verify summary from interviews 4.Hypothesize: a final summary of where, when & why behaviors occur
What are some of the challenging behaviors you are currently dealing with in your classroom/school?
Are the behaviors you listed observable? Measurable? Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts?
VAGUEDESCRIPTIVE Julia is aggressive Julia hits other students during PE class when she does not get her way Michael is disruptive Michael blurts out and makes inappropriate comments during classroom discussions Jenny is hyperactive Jenny leaves her assigned area without permission. Jenny only completes small portions of her work. Jenny blurts out answers without raising her hand. Define Behavior in Clear Terms
Provide an observable and measurable definition for the behaviors listed in your workbook ACTIVITY 3:
2. ASK (Gather Information/Data) Staff, Student, Parents about the ABCs D.A.S.H
Functional (Behavioral Assessment) Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) An interview tool for collecting information about problematic behavior. For staff, parents and students
ACTIVITY 4: Review the F-BSP Protocol example Complete the Student Profile and Step 1 of the F-BSP Protocol for your student Pair up with someone to discuss the teacher/staff/parent Interview for your student
Creating a Hypothesis Statement What is the problem behavior? Where does it happen? When does it happen? What are the consequences? What is the function?
Anatomy of an Hypothesis Statement “When _____________________________________, (summarize the antecedents here) he/she will __________________________________ (summarize the problem behavior here) in order to _____________________________.” (summarize the function here)
When asked to participate orally in math class, Shane typically ignores the teacher’s request. If the teacher confronts Shane in front of the class and continues to direct him to participate, Shane will become highly agitated and begin to yell at the teacher. These behaviors allow Shane to avoid attention from his peers.
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention
ACTIVITY 6: Using your workbook, create Behavior Pathways for each of the following student scenarios.
SCENARIO: Jason During independent work time, Jason makes disruptive noises and the teacher responds by redirecting him to work quietly. Jason goes back on task temporarily but continues to interrupt throughout the lesson.
Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Behavior Pathway Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003 Makes Disruptive Noises Independent Work Classroom Teacher Redirection FUNCTION: Obtain Attention
SCENARIO: Beth When the teacher asks Beth to read aloud during literacy class, she curses at the teacher and is sent to the planning room to process with a staff member.
Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Behavior Pathway Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003 Curses at teacherAsked to Read Aloud Literacy Class Sent into planning room FUNCTION: Avoid Difficult Task
SCENARIO: William During math class William continually interrupts the teacher making jokes. When redirected by the teacher he calls her a f-ing bleep. After removing himself from the classroom and going in the hallway for 5 minutes, William returns and continues to interrupt the lesson.
Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Behavior Pathway Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner, R.H., 2003 Interrupts Teacher/ Making Jokes Teacher Instruction Math Class Group Setting Teacher Redirection FUNCTION: Obtain Attention
Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Behavior Pathway Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003 Calls Teacher a F- ing Bleep Teacher Redirection Classroom Removes Self from Room FUNCTION: Avoid Confrontation; Work Re-enters Room
ACTIVITY 7: Using your F-BSP Protocol (Step 2), create a behavior pathway and write a hypothesis statement for your student
Developing a Competing Behavior Pathway Natural Consequence Maintaining Consequence that meets function* Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Alternative Behavior Antecedent Setting Event Targeted Routine Summary Statement: We already have this!!! *Function is: ____________________
Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
“That’s disrespectful language girl. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again!” “l hate this F__ing school and you’re a dumbF___”
Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Independent class work Does not have teacher attention Completes task Makes noises Gets verbal praise from teacher Raises hand and asks for help or break Gets help from teacher
ACTIVITY 8: Using the F-BSP Protocol, complete the Competing Behavior Pathway (upper portion) for your student (Step 6).
Part 1.0 Summary 1. The function of behavior should always be considered when selecting interventions for students. 2. Use the F-BSP Protocol form to conduct a FBA 3. Functions based problem solving is about changing environmental factors rather than “fixing kids.” 4. The Competing Behavior Pathway is a template that allows your team to develop a functions based behavior intervention plan. 73
HOMEWORK 1.Confirm the competing pathway you developed with relevant others back at school. If needed, get more information using the F-BSP Protocol. 2.Experiment with altering at least one of the intervention strategies: setting events, antecedents, behavior teaching or consequences.