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Basic FBA to BSP Using Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to Develop Function-Based Behavior Support Plans (BSP) Adapted from Sheldon Loman and others.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic FBA to BSP Using Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to Develop Function-Based Behavior Support Plans (BSP) Adapted from Sheldon Loman and others."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic FBA to BSP Using Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to Develop Function-Based Behavior Support Plans (BSP) Adapted from Sheldon Loman and others Day One

2 Learning Objectives Day One: Understand the concepts of “function” and “functional behavior assessment” Consider how FBA/BSP fits within a multi-tiered system of supports Learn the FBA process and practice with selected student Day Two: Develop a BSP for selected student Plan for implementing FBA/BSP within your multi-tiered system

3 Materials Introduction and Practice in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning (FBA/BSP) From FBA to BSP Planning Workbook

4 What’s the function of this behavior?

5

6 Function Based Approach Focuses on: Changing environmental factors instead of fixing the person. It’s about what we as adults will do differently!

7 D.A.S.H. D efine behavior in observable and measurable terms A sk about behavior by interviewing staff and student specify routines where & when behavior occurs summarize where, when, and why behavior occurs S ee the behavior observe the behavior during routines specified observe to verify summary from interviews H ypothesize a final summary of where, when, and why behaviors occur

8 Simple vs Complex FBA SIMPLECOMPLEX FOR Students that demonstrate high frequency behaviors that are not dangerous, have received interventions that did not improve behavior, show behaviors in only 1-2 settings Students that demonstrate dangerous behaviors or show behaviors that occur in 3 or more school settings WHAT Relatively simple and efficient process to guide behavior support planning Time-intensive process that involves emergency planning, family-centered planning, and collaboration with outside agencies DEVELOPED BY WHOM Team of school-based personnel (ex: teachers, special educator, counselor, administrator, behavior support personnel) School-based team, including professionals trained to develop and implement intensive interventions for students with severe problem behaviors (ex: behavior specialist or school psychologist)

9 How Does the Functional Approach Fit Into Your School’s Multi-Tiered System of Supports?

10 Six Components of Universal 1.Purpose Statement Expectations 3.System for Teaching Expectations 4.System for Acknowledging Expectations 5.System for Discouraging Problem Behavior 6.Data-based Decision Making Think Functionally!

11 Targeted Interventions Implement Universal with Fidelity Inventory Existing Targeted Practices Develop Intervention – ie. Check-in/Check-out Develop Data System to Support Targeted Interventions Match interventions to the function of the behavior!

12 Examples: Targeted Group Interventions Based on Functions of Behavior Access Adult Attention/Support: Check-In/Check-Out Adult Mentoring Programs Access Peer Attention/Support: Social Skills Instruction Peer Mentoring Self-Monitoring with Peer Support (function: academic task escape) Academic Skills Support: Organization/Homewo rk planning support Homework completion club Tutoring

13 INTENSIVE LEVEL Establish Intensive Team Establish SU Supports for the Intensive Level Establish SU and interagency Develop Capacity for Wraparound Supports Create comprehensive FBA/BIP

14 School-wide Positive Behavioral Supports 80% of Students Secondary Group Supports 10-15% of Students Individualized Supports 5% of Students Behavior Specialist responsible for 25 FBAs in school of 500 Personnel with “flexible” roles conduct proactive Simple FBA to expand the scope of FBA, prevent intensive problem behaviors, & decrease reliance on specialist. FBA LOGIC MODEL Sheldon Loman, University of Oregon

15 Who is Responsible for Conducting FBA/BSP in Your School? How does someone access this FBA/BSP?

16 Requesting an FBA Teachers & school teams should be able to identify the system for requesting assistance Teachers should be able to identify who to access assistance from The targeted team (EST) will determine when an FBA/BSP referral is necessary based on data

17 ACTIVITY 1: Using the questions in the workbook, review/develop your school’s process for accessing an FBA/BSP

18 D.A.S.H. D efine behavior in observable and measurable terms A sk about behavior by interviewing staff and student specify routines where & when behavior occurs summarize where, when, and why behavior occurs S ee the behavior observe the behavior during routines specified observe to verify summary from interviews H ypothesize a final summary of where, when, and why behaviors occur

19 D efining and Understanding Behavior

20 The ABC’s of Understanding Behavior A = Antecedent Find out the events that occur right before the behavior. When and Where? B = Behavior Find out What is the observable problem behavior C = Consequence Find out what happens after the behavior occurs. Why?

21 Always Start by Defining the Problem Behavior (ABC’s) 2 Antecedents/Trigger s When _____happens…. 1 Behavior: the student does (what)__ 3 Consequence/Functio n..and as a result ______

22 Defining Observable Behaviors Definitions of behaviors need to be: * Observable: The behavior is an action that can be seen * Measurable: The behavior can be counted or timed * Defined so clearly: that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts!

23 Examples and Non-Examples NON-OBSERVABLE / MEASURABLEOBSERVABLE / MEASURABLE Disruptive behaviorsTalks when teacher is lecturing, calling out in a loud voice, singing Off-task behaviorsDraws pictures during group work time Angry, Hostile BehaviorsThrowing objects, Kicking over chairs Inappropriate languageCalls peers names Attention problemsTapping/ drumming on desk, looking around the classroom Non-complianceRefusal to do work, failure to follow directions DefianceYells “No” or “You can’t make me” when given direction

24 Are these observable & measurable? Gets out of desk and hits other students Has separation anxiety (from parent) Spacey Reads 120 wpm Says she hears voices Emotionally disturbed Doesn’t like classmates

25 Defining Behavior Tips: 1) “What does the behavior look like?” Talking out: Any verbalization made by the student that was not initiated by the teacher and/or distracts others from the assigned tasks in the classroom 2) Provide Examples and Non-Examples of the Problem Behavior Examples of Talking Out:  Answering a question the teacher asks of a different student Non-examples of Talking Out:  Answering a question the teacher asks of the student

26 Defining Behavior Tip #2 Provide Examples and Non-Examples of the Problem Behavior Examples of Talking Out:  Answering a question the teacher asks of a different student  Talking when the teacher is giving directions  Talking to peers during independent work time Non-examples of Talking Out:  Answering a question the teacher asks of the student  Calling out to another student during recess  Talking with table mates during a cooperative group activity

27 ACTIVITY 2: A) Using your workbook, provide an observable & measurable definition for these behaviors: Jeff is always disruptive in class Hailey is constantly off-task during math Chris is defiant Brandon is angry and hostile Alexis uses inappropriate language B) Provide an observable and measurable definition of your student’s behavior

28 D.A.S.H. D efine behavior in observable and measurable terms A sk about behavior by interviewing staff and student specify routines where & when behavior occurs summarize where, when, and why behavior occurs S ee the behavior observe the behavior during routines specified observe to verify summary from interviews H ypothesize a final summary of where, when, and why behaviors occur

29 A sking About When, Where, and Why the Behavior Occurs

30 Once you have defined the problem behavior… THEN: Where & When does the behavior occur? 2 Antecedents/Trigger s When _____happens…. 1 Behavior: the student does (what)__ 3 Consequence/Functio n..and as a result ______

31 WHERE and WHEN Does the Problem Behavior Occur? WHERE = Routines where the problem behavior is most likely Examples: during math class, gym, lunch, recess WHEN = Specific events (or antecedents) within a routine that “trigger” the problem behavior Examples: when given double-digit addition, given directions

32 Identifying Antecedent “Triggers” Identify the event, action, or object that occurs right before the problem behavior (When…) – Signals the behavior – “Sets it off” (trigger) Identify the ANTECEDENT in these examples: – At the lunch table, when told to shut up by a peer, Ben hits the student – In language arts class, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokes – During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying

33 ACTIVITY 3: Using your workbook, identify the behavior and antecedent in the scenarios

34 During passing period in the hallway before recess, when peers tease him about his walk, A.J. calls them names and hits them. Routine: “During __________________________” Scenario #1 PEERS TEASE ABOUT HIS WALK CALLS NAMES & HITS Passing Period before Recess Antecedent When… Antecedent When… The student... Behavior

35 In math class, Bea stares off into space and does not respond to teacher directions when she is given a difficult math problem. Routine: “During________________” Scenario #2 GIVEN A DIFFICULT MATH PROBLEM STARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS Math Class When… Antecedent When… Behavior The student…

36 Once you have defined the behavior (the What) & know Where & When the behavior occurs… Then: What is the CONSEQUENCE? (What happens after or as a result of the behavior?) 2 Routines/Antecedents: When _____happens…. 1 Behavior: the student does (what)__ 3 Consequence/Outcome..and as a result ______

37 Consequence: Determine What Happens Right After the Behavior It may help to think: “and as a result ______________” Example (Antecedent  Behavior  Consequence) – During recess, when peers tease him, Ben hits his peers and they leave him alone. – During reading, When asked to read aloud Tracy tells jokes, the other students laugh, and she is sent to the office (missing the assignment) – During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying, the teacher stops circle time and comforts her

38 ACTIVITY 4: A)Using your workbook, identify the behavior, routine, antecedent, and consequence in the scenarios B)Identify the ABC’s of your student’s behavior

39 Scenario #1 Joe throws his pencil and rips his paper during math whenever he is given double-digit math problems. This results in him getting sent to the office. Routine: “During ________________” Antecedent/Trigger: When.. Behavior: Student does.. Consequence/Outcome: and as a result… Math class Throws pencil & rips paper Sent to the office Given double-digit math problems

40 Scenario #2 Nancy cries during reading time when she is asked to work by herself. This results in the teacher sitting and reading with her. Routine: “During ________________” Antecedent/Trigger: When… Behavior: Student does.. Consequence/Outcome: and as a result... Reading Cries Asked to work by herself The teacher sits & reads with her

41 Once you have identified the ABC’s Then: You need to understand the FUNCTION or WHY the behavior occurs 2 Routines/Antecedents: When _____happens…. 1 Behavior: the student does (what)__ 3 Consequence/Outcome..and as a result ______ Function is _________

42 Functions of Behavior

43 Most Common Functions of Behavior To Obtain/ Get :  Peer attention  Adult attention  Desired activity  Desired object/ items  Sensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc. To Avoid/ Escape:  Difficult Task  Boring Task  Easy Task  Physical demand  Non-preferred activity  Peer attention  Staff attention  Reprimands

44 Obtain/Get Reinforcers – I yell and others look at me – I fight and others listen to me – I wander and people talk to me – I hit in order to get toys from other kids Escape/Avoid Aversives – I cry when work gets hard and the teacher tells me to take a time out – I throw a book during math class and the teacher will remove me from class – I stand out of the way during PE and the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball. Examples of Function in School

45 Understanding Why the Behavior Occurs When understanding behavior, we want to learn what FUNCTION (or purpose) the behavior is serving for the student (what is the pay-off for the student or what maintains that behavior?) You need to understand from the student’s perspective… – What are they getting (or trying to get) from engaging in this behavior – What is the most important thing that the student wants to gain (or avoid) by using this behavior

46 Understanding FUNCTION: WHY? What maintains the behavior? Use information about the routine, antecedent, behavior, & consequence to determine that the function of the behavior is either to: -Get or Avoid something in the environment Routine: During ________________ Antecedent/Trigger: When _________ Behavior: Student does _________ Consequence/Outcome: and as a result… __________ Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid ____________

47 What is the Function of Jane’s Behavior? Jane, a fifth grade student, was referred for disruptive behavior to the student support team by her teacher, Mrs. O’Neil. After interviewing Mrs. O’Neil and conducting several observations of Jane in the classroom, the team determined that during transitions (from lunch, recess, dismissal) in the hallway when staff are present, she shouts profanities. Then, adults spend time talking with her about her behavior.

48 Jane’s Summary Statement Antecedent/Trigger: When.. Behavior: Student.. Consequence/Outcome: and as a result... Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid Adult Attention is what maintains the behavior!! Routine: During ________________Transitions Staff are present Shouts profanities Adults talk to her Attention from Adults

49 ACTIVITY 5: Using your workbook, identify the behavior, routine, antecedent, and consequence in the scenario and for your student Use this information to determine the most likely FUNCTION of the problem behavior

50 When asked to sit with to his peers in morning circle, Mike pulls the hair of the girl sitting next to him. The teacher tells Mike to go back and sit at his desk. Routine: “During ________________ “ Scenario #1 Antecedent/Trigger: “When … Behavior: Student does… Consequence/Outcome: and as a result… Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid Asked to sit with peers Morning Circle Pulls hair of girl next to him Sent to sit at desk Sitting at morning circle

51

52 From the video you just watched on Shane …. Routine: “During ________________” Scenario #3 52 Antecedent/Trigger: “When … Behavior: Student does.. Consequence/Outcome: and as a result… Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid

53 After we defined the behavior (the What) & know Where & When & Why the behavior occurs… Then: We ask: Are there any events that happen outside of the routine that “SET UP” the behavior (make it more likely to occur)? 2 Antecedents/ Triggers 1 Behavior 3 Consequence and Function 4 Setting Events

54 Events, removed from the immediate situation, that have an impact on the student’s behavior Things that, when a trigger is present, increases the chances that the problem behavior will occur Examples: lack of sleep, illness, change in routines, trauma, argument at home the night before, bullying, etc.

55 Antecedents vs. Setting Events Antecedents - occur immediately before and act as “triggers” for problem behavior Setting Events – indirectly “set-up” the problem behavior by temporarily altering the value of maintaining consequences. *Setting events can help us PREDICT that the problem behavior will occur.

56 Common Setting Events: Lack of sleep or food Having a fight on the way to school Bad grade on a test / reprimands Forgetting to take medication Substitute teacher / changes in routine Non-examples: Diagnosis of autism or ADHD “Bad” home life NOTE: Setting Events can be difficult to identify, are often unknown.

57 When peers approach Victor in the hallway and say, “Hello”, he yells “Leave me alone!” and “Go away!” Peers say he is weird and walk away. This is most likely to happen on days that Victor has an argument with his sibling before school. What is the triggering antecedent? - Peers approach and say “hello” What is the setting event? - Argument with sibling before school Setting Events: Example

58 ACTIVITY 6: Using your workbook, identify the following in the scenarios: * The triggering antecedent * The most likely FUNCTION of the problem behavior * The setting event

59 Teacher sends him to the office Function: Scenario #1 When Jason is asked to outline a book chapter in Language Arts, he often argues, refuses to work and uses profanity which results in being sent to the office for ‘disrespect’. This behavior is more likely if Jason has an altercation with a peer on the bus on the way to school. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Peer altercation on bus on the way to school Asked to outline chapter Arguing with teacher, refusing to work, profanity Routine: Language Arts Escape Task

60 EA talks privately with the student Function: Scenario #2 During story time when the teacher asks other students questions, Michelle blurts out responses or begins crying if she is not called on. When this happens, the educational assistant moves in closely and talks privately to Michelle in an effort to calm her. This is most likely to happen on days when Michelle has not had her medication. Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence Students does not take medication Other students asked to answer questions Blurts out responses, cries Routine: Story time Adult Attention

61 D.A.S.H. D efine behavior in observable and measurable terms A sk about behavior by interviewing staff and student specify routines where & when behavior occurs summarize where, when, and why behavior occurs S ee the behavior observe the behavior during routines specified observe to verify summary from interviews H ypothesize a final summary of where, when, and why behaviors occur

62 S eeing or observing the behavior to verify summary from interviews

63 The purpose of an observation is to confirm or verify the team’s summary If the team has high confidence in their summary, then they may decide that an observation is not necessary

64 ABC Observation Observe the student in the routines identified during the interview Confirm accuracy of summary of behavior from interview Identify antecedents and outcomes that the team may have overlooked Verify the function of the student’s behavior Develop the most accurate summary statement

65 Review Problem behaviors defined in observable and measurable terms and so clear that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts Once behavior is defined, identify where and when the behavior occurs (routines and triggering antecedents) After you’ve defined the behavior and know where and when it occurs, then determine why it happens (consequence and function) Then ask if there are any events that happen outside of the routine that make it more likely to occur (setting events)

66 Problem behaviors are defined in observable and measurable terms and so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts 2 Antecedents/ Triggers 1 Behavior 3 Consequence and Function 4 Setting Events

67 Once the behavior is defined, identify where and when the behavior occurs (routines and triggering antecedents) 2 Antecedents/ Triggers 1 Behavior 3 Consequence and Function 4 Setting Events

68 After you’ve defined the behavior and know where and when it occurs, then determine why it happens (consequence and payoff) 2 Antecedents/ Triggers 1 Behavior 3 Consequence and Function 4 Setting Events

69 Then ask if there are any events that happen outside of the routine that make it more likely to occur (setting events) 2 Antecedents/ Triggers 1 Behavior 3 Consequence and Function 4 Setting Events

70 Behavior Pathway Desi Routine: Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Consequence/Function

71 D.A.S.H. D efine behavior in observable and measurable terms A sk about behavior by interviewing staff and student specify routines where & when behavior occurs summarize where, when, and why behavior occurs S ee the behavior observe the behavior during routines specified observe to verify summary from interviews H ypothesize a final summary of where, when, and why behaviors occur

72 H ypothesizing a final summary of where, when, and why behaviors occur

73 Anatomy of an Hypothesis Statement “During ___________________________________, (the routine or location) When _____________________________________, (summarize the antecedents here) he/she will __________________________________ (summarize the problem behavior here) in order to _____________________________.” (summarize the function here) This behavior is more likely to occur if ____________________. (summarize setting event here)

74 ACTIVITY 7: Using your workbook, Complete the behavior pathway for your student Create your hypothesis statement

75 Competing Behavior Pathway Desi Routine: Desired Behavior Consequence/Function Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Consequence/Function Alternative Behavior

76 Functional (Behavioral Assessment) Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) An interview tool for collecting information about problem behaviors For staff, parents, and students The F-BSP then leads the team to create a competing behavior pathway and behavior support plan

77

78 Homework Gather more information on the student you’ve identified, using the interview section of the F-BSP Protocol (ideally in a team meeting) Conduct observations to verify the information gathered thus far Working with others, confirm/finalize a hypothesis statement for your student


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