Presentation on theme: "Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy Steps From the work of Rob Horner and Others Presented."— Presentation transcript:
1 Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy StepsFrom the work of Rob Horner and OthersPresented By Ken KrambergAnd Richard BoltaxLead
2 Function Based Approach A process that focuses onchanging environmental factorsinstead offixing the person.It’s about what we as adults will do differently!
3 F B A Determine why problems occur Testable explanations Assessing predictable relationships between the environment and behaviorInvolves observations of student in natural environmentsDetermine why problems occurTestable explanationsThe purpose is to get the information necessary to create a successful planPlans focus primarily on preventionF B Aonly
4 ERASE problem behavior Explain - What is the problem? Reason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? Appropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? Support - How can you help this happen more often?Evaluate - How will you know if it works?4
5 DEFINING Problem Behavior (Challenging Behavior)Behavior is…..any action which is observable and measurable, and has a distinct onset and offset.secprevnten
9 Only Two Basic Functions PositiveReinforcementNegativeReinforcementExisting aversive condition identifiedFor example-Many students use off topic comments/inappropriate language to obtainattention from peers through their reactions and to escape the task at hand.In this example, social reinforcement is obtained from the peers and theadult.Remember reinforcement is positive and negative.NOTE:When control is offered as a possible function- think about what is underlying that perception.Control can be a way:To hide skill deficits; therefore escaping/avoiding a taskTo hide fears around social acceptance; therefore escaping/avoiding a situationFor an individual to assert themselves; therefore gaining/obtaining the attention of peers/adultsfrom Horner & Sugai at
10 Ex1. Determining Function Given a task, student…Whispers that work is stupid,Writes on papers,Says work is stupid,Throws paper in waste basket, &Leaves room.What is function of behavior? (Test)
11 What is function of behavior? (Test) Ex2.Given difficult task, student…Says this work is stupid,Pokes student at next table,Argues with student,Tells teacher to butt out,Threatens teacherRuns away from teacher who chases.What is function of behavior? (Test)
13 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.Avoid difficult tasksWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceSequoia makesnegative self-statements &writes profanelanguageTeacher sendsSequoia tooffice for beingdisrespectfulMisses 12:30medicationTeachersmakemultipletask demands
14 Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.Escape adult &peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceCaesar isteased severaltimes about hishair by hisfriends beforeclassHis teacherstares at hishair in classCaesar askshis teacherwhat she’sstaring atHis teachersends him toin-schooldetention
15 Functional Behavior Pathways Access or Avoid = reinforce Problem BehaviorSetting ConditionAntecedent TriggerAccess or Avoid = reinforceReplacement Behavior15
17 Let’s review what we know about Grant’s problem behavior so far- Let’s focus on verbal disruption since this is how each behavioral incident always starts and by our best guess we think it’s purpose is to escape the task.Antecedent events noted are independent reading tasks that are perceived as too hardA possible setting event is a new foster child in the home, but we’re really not how or if this impacts.Maintaining consequences at this time appear to be peer/adult attention and escape from a task (same behavior with multiple functions).Consider what the student should be doing instead – the desired behavior, raise hand and wait appropriately for teacher assistance.Now let’s think of a replacement behavior that is maintained by the same consequence and serves the same function- ESCAPE. (May wish to discuss why escape isselected here and not attention).Please take out the Activity 2 sheet. You will have 5-10 minutes in small groups to complete your Competing Pathways Chart based upon a behavior that we will assign.Problem Behaviors: tantrums, talk-outs, swearing, name calling, work refusal, physical aggression, verbal threats, and out-of–seat.Review the directions step-by-step so each team know what is expected.
18 Adapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999 The Competing Pathways Chart serves is a visual organizer of the FBA/BIP process.Identify what the student should be doing instead of the problem behaviorFocus on appropriate, pro-social behaviors that serve the same functionChoose a behavior that is observable and measurableReview: The problem behavior identified for the case study is that the student responds using inappropriate words, tone, and body language when interacting with both adults and peers.Have small groups use the Competing Pathways Chart to generate an appropriate replacement behavior.Spend a few minutes reviewing desired and acceptable alternative behaviors focusing on the fact that the behavior must serve the same function, be efficient, and relevant to the student.Adapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999
19 Step 1: Define the Problem Behavior What does the problem behavior look like?Conduct interviews, review prior incidents & observations across the student’s routine/settings to define the problem behavior.Observable, measurable, concrete language.NON EXAMPLE EXAMPLEpoor impulse control high pitched screamsangry, hostile, resentful kicking over chairspaying attention completes tasksEstimate how often the problem behavior occurs & how intense the problem behavior is.
20 STEP 2: Gathering Information What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior?Maintaining Consequences:What happens immediately after the problem behavior?What is the child trying to GET or GET AWAY from?Get social attentionGet objects/access to activitiesGet sensory stimulationAvoid aversive task/activityAvoid aversive social contactAvoid aversive sensory stimulation
21 STEP 2: Gathering Information What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior?Antecedent Events (Fast Triggers):Analyze routines in the student’s day to identify…Where, when, with whom the problem behavior occurs?Where, when, with whom desirable behavior is more likely to occur?What events, contexts, demands, tasks, people reliably trigger/precede the behavior?
22 STEP 2: Gathering Information What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior?Setting Events (Slow Triggers - Removed in Time)Events Removed in time that influence the behavior…What distal events tend to predict when the problem behavior will occur later?
23 Step 3: Generate a Hypothesis Statement A hypothesis statement isa summary statement that describes the team’s best guess about the relationship between the problem behavior and the characteristics of the environment- the specific contexts and the specific function.The goal of which isto identify specific CONCRETE circumstances regularly associated with the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the problem behavior.
24 Anatomy of an Hypothesis Statement “When ______________________________,(summarize the antecedents here)he/she will _______________________(summarize the problem behavior here)in order to _____________________________.”(summarize the function here)
25 Step 4: Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Behavior Support Plans are only as effective as our understanding of the context of the problem behavior.Therefore…“Invest the time it takes, for each child, to build a precise hypothesis statement.”To be effective, Behavior Support Plans must include specific components that PROMOTE positive behavior and DETER problem behavior.
26 Fundamental Rule!“You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
27 Build a Competing Behavior Pathway MaintainingConsequenceDesiredBehaviorSetting EventTriggeringAntecedentMaintainingConsequenceProblemBehaviorReplacementBehaviorAdapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003
28 Build a Competing Behavior Pathway CompletestaskIndependentclassworkDoes not haveteach attentionGets verbalpraise fromteacherMakesnoisesGets help from teacherRaises handandasks forhelp or break
29 Behavior Intervention Program (BIP) Two Goals:Reduce problem behaviorsIncrease appropriate behaviorsMake behaviors:IrrelevantInefficientineffective
30 Teaching Replacement Behaviors ExplainSpecify student behaviorModelPracticeReinforceCarefully explain each of the steps30
31 Step 5: Design a Behavior Intervention Plan Preventive StrategiesAKA: Make the problem behavior irrelevantWhat modifications to the environment(academic, social, physical)may PREVENT the problem behavior?What adjustments will make the problem behavior unnecessary?
32 Examples of Preventive Strategies Increase the effectiveness of instruction for this child(Strategy Instruction, Content Enhancement Routines)Increase academic skill levelsModify the curriculum(interest preferences, choice, sequence)Modify the demands(quantity, difficulty, input, output, groupings, alternative tasks)Clarify the expectationsReorganize the physical & interactional setting(have supplies available, pair seats, independent seats)
33 FBA/BSP Worksheet Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences Use words to express self & ask for helpSuccessful Social InteractionsChallenging BehaviorTriggering EventsMaintaining ConsequencesSetting EventsRestless night/wakes up tiredFights/hits other students (sometimes teacher)Confusion with games rules on playgroundAdult intervenesAlternate Behavior1. Yell (don’t touch)2. Squeeze hands & stomp feet3. Get an adult
35 Step 6: Plan for Implementation of the BIP Behavior Intervention Plans outline specifically:What replacement behaviors will be taught to the student?Who will teach replacement behaviors to the student?How the student will be taught to use the replacement behaviors?What will be used to signal the student to use the new skill(s)? (natural events, teacher prompt, time, peer)
36 Do quiz withoutcomplaints.Discussion aboutanswers & homework.On Mondays and/orwhen up all of thenight before.Daily nongraded quizon previous night’shomeworkVerbal protests, slumpin chair, walks out ofroom.Avoids doing quiz &homework discussion.Turn in with name &sit quietly w/ointerrupting.+ Give time to reviewhomework.+ Give quiet time before starting.+ Give easy “warm-up” task before doing quiz.+ Precorrect behavior options & consequences.+ With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, orrequest completion of task next period.+ Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO).+ Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers.Teach options to problem behavior:1. Turn in blank2. Turn in w/ name3. Turn in w/ name & first item done.4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.
37 Behavioral Pathway Days with Gym Setting EventDays with GymAntecedentLess structured activities that involve competitionProblem BehaviorNegative comments about activity and to peers leading to physical contactConsequenceSent out of P.E. classFunctionTo escape setting
38 Brief Function-based Interventions Antecedent StrategiesBehavior Lessons for all students about using respectful language with self and others and how to be to be a good sport. More frequent activities with less focus on competition (parachute, 4-square, etc...)Pre-correctTeaching StrategiesTeach social skills (getting along with others, friendship, problem solving, sportsmanship)Teach how to approach gym teacher to ask for a drink of water to leave setting.Teach student how to re-enter and continue with activityConsequence SupportsAcknowledgingrewarding student when uses new skills (asking for a drink of water to leave, using respectful language with peers, being a good sport, etc..)Setting Event SupportsAdd check-in before gym
39 Step 7: BIP Monitoring & Modification Behavior Intervention Plans outline specifically:What behavioral changes will we expect?general outcome, long & short term goals,maintenance & generalizationWhat methods will be used to measure and monitor progress toward the goals?“How will progress be recorded, at whatfrequency, and by whom?”
40 Step 7: BIP Monitoring & Modification Behavior Support Plans outline specifically:What decision rules/criteria will be used to decide if the BIP should be maintained, faded, modified, or discontinued?Who will be responsible for monitoring the accuracy or the integrity of the implementation of the BIP?At what interval will the team monitor the BIP?
41 FBA Team Process Steps Collect information. Develop testable hypothesis or summary statement.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement.Develop “competing pathways” summary statement.Develop BIP.Develop details & routines for full implementation of BSP.Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.
42 Activity # 12 Planning the FBA Process Begin work on these steps and complete for homework:Establish a process for referral for and completion of a FBA. Complete guiding questions in Workbook.