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Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy Steps From the work of Rob Horner and Others Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy Steps From the work of Rob Horner and Others Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy Steps From the work of Rob Horner and Others Presented By Ken Kramberg And Richard Boltax Lead

2 Function Based Approach
A process that focuses on changing environmental factors instead of fixing the person. It’s about what we as adults will do differently!

3 F B A Determine why problems occur Testable explanations
Assessing predictable relationships between the environment and behavior Involves observations of student in natural environments Determine why problems occur Testable explanations The purpose is to get the information necessary to create a successful plan Plans focus primarily on prevention F B A only

4 ERASE problem behavior
Explain - What is the problem? Reason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? Appropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? Support - How can you help this happen more often? Evaluate - How will you know if it works? 4

5 DEFINING Problem Behavior
(Challenging Behavior) Behavior is….. any action which is observable and measurable, and has a distinct onset and offset. secprevnten

6 Behavior Kicking Pinching Cursing Hitting Spitting Yelling Disrespect
Examples: NonExamples Kicking Pinching Cursing Hitting Spitting Yelling Disrespect Defiance Off task Anger secprvten

7 Defining Target Behaviors
Functional Behavioral Assessment 4/14/2017 Defining Target Behaviors

8 8

9 Only Two Basic Functions
Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Existing aversive condition identified For example- Many students use off topic comments/inappropriate language to obtain attention from peers through their reactions and to escape the task at hand. In this example, social reinforcement is obtained from the peers and the adult. Remember reinforcement is positive and negative. NOTE: When control is offered as a possible function- think about what is underlying that perception. Control can be a way: To hide skill deficits; therefore escaping/avoiding a task To hide fears around social acceptance; therefore escaping/avoiding a situation For an individual to assert themselves; therefore gaining/obtaining the attention of peers/adults from Horner & Sugai at

10 Ex1. Determining Function
Given a task, student… Whispers that work is stupid, Writes on papers, Says work is stupid, Throws paper in waste basket, & Leaves room. What is function of behavior? (Test)

11 What is function of behavior? (Test)
Ex2. Given difficult task, student… Says this work is stupid, Pokes student at next table, Argues with student, Tells teacher to butt out, Threatens teacher Runs away from teacher who chases. What is function of behavior? (Test)

12 Irrelavant Transition Slide

13 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Avoid difficult tasks What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands

14 Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. Escape adult & peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention

15 Functional Behavior Pathways Access or Avoid = reinforce
Problem Behavior Setting Condition Antecedent Trigger Access or Avoid = reinforce Replacement Behavior 15

16 Functional Behavior Pathways MaintainingConsequence
Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequence Setting Condition Antecedent Trigger Problem Behavior Function Replacement Behavior 16

17 Let’s review what we know about Grant’s problem behavior so far-
Let’s focus on verbal disruption since this is how each behavioral incident always starts and by our best guess we think it’s purpose is to escape the task. Antecedent events noted are independent reading tasks that are perceived as too hard A possible setting event is a new foster child in the home, but we’re really not how or if this impacts. Maintaining consequences at this time appear to be peer/adult attention and escape from a task (same behavior with multiple functions). Consider what the student should be doing instead – the desired behavior, raise hand and wait appropriately for teacher assistance. Now let’s think of a replacement behavior that is maintained by the same consequence and serves the same function- ESCAPE. (May wish to discuss why escape is selected here and not attention). Please take out the Activity 2 sheet. You will have 5-10 minutes in small groups to complete your Competing Pathways Chart based upon a behavior that we will assign. Problem Behaviors: tantrums, talk-outs, swearing, name calling, work refusal, physical aggression, verbal threats, and out-of–seat. Review the directions step-by-step so each team know what is expected.

18 Adapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999
The Competing Pathways Chart serves is a visual organizer of the FBA/BIP process. Identify what the student should be doing instead of the problem behavior Focus on appropriate, pro-social behaviors that serve the same function Choose a behavior that is observable and measurable Review: The problem behavior identified for the case study is that the student responds using inappropriate words, tone, and body language when interacting with both adults and peers. Have small groups use the Competing Pathways Chart to generate an appropriate replacement behavior. Spend a few minutes reviewing desired and acceptable alternative behaviors focusing on the fact that the behavior must serve the same function, be efficient, and relevant to the student. Adapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999

19 Step 1: Define the Problem Behavior
What does the problem behavior look like? Conduct interviews, review prior incidents & observations across the student’s routine/settings to define the problem behavior. Observable, measurable, concrete language. NON EXAMPLE EXAMPLE poor impulse control high pitched screams angry, hostile, resentful kicking over chairs paying attention completes tasks Estimate how often the problem behavior occurs & how intense the problem behavior is.

20 STEP 2: Gathering Information
What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior? Maintaining Consequences: What happens immediately after the problem behavior? What is the child trying to GET or GET AWAY from? Get social attention Get objects/access to activities Get sensory stimulation Avoid aversive task/activity Avoid aversive social contact Avoid aversive sensory stimulation

21 STEP 2: Gathering Information
What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior? Antecedent Events (Fast Triggers): Analyze routines in the student’s day to identify… Where, when, with whom the problem behavior occurs? Where, when, with whom desirable behavior is more likely to occur? What events, contexts, demands, tasks, people reliably trigger/precede the behavior?

22 STEP 2: Gathering Information
What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior? Setting Events (Slow Triggers - Removed in Time) Events Removed in time that influence the behavior… What distal events tend to predict when the problem behavior will occur later?

23 Step 3: Generate a Hypothesis Statement
A hypothesis statement is a summary statement that describes the team’s best guess about the relationship between the problem behavior and the characteristics of the environment- the specific contexts and the specific function. The goal of which is to identify specific CONCRETE circumstances regularly associated with the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the problem behavior.

24 Anatomy of an Hypothesis Statement
“When ______________________________, (summarize the antecedents here) he/she will _______________________ (summarize the problem behavior here) in order to _____________________________.” (summarize the function here)

25 Step 4: Build a Competing Behavior Pathway
Behavior Support Plans are only as effective as our understanding of the context of the problem behavior. Therefore… “Invest the time it takes, for each child, to build a precise hypothesis statement.” To be effective, Behavior Support Plans must include specific components that PROMOTE positive behavior and DETER problem behavior.

26 Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).

27 Build a Competing Behavior Pathway
Maintaining Consequence Desired Behavior Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Maintaining Consequence Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003

28 Build a Competing Behavior Pathway
Completes task Independent classwork Does not have teach attention Gets verbal praise from teacher Makes noises Gets help from teacher Raises hand and asks for help or break

29 Behavior Intervention Program (BIP)
Two Goals: Reduce problem behaviors Increase appropriate behaviors Make behaviors: Irrelevant Inefficient ineffective

30 Teaching Replacement Behaviors
Explain Specify student behavior Model Practice Reinforce Carefully explain each of the steps 30

31 Step 5: Design a Behavior Intervention Plan
Preventive Strategies AKA: Make the problem behavior irrelevant What modifications to the environment (academic, social, physical) may PREVENT the problem behavior? What adjustments will make the problem behavior unnecessary?

32 Examples of Preventive Strategies
Increase the effectiveness of instruction for this child (Strategy Instruction, Content Enhancement Routines) Increase academic skill levels Modify the curriculum (interest preferences, choice, sequence) Modify the demands (quantity, difficulty, input, output, groupings, alternative tasks) Clarify the expectations Reorganize the physical & interactional setting (have supplies available, pair seats, independent seats)

33 FBA/BSP Worksheet Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequences
Use words to express self & ask for help Successful Social Interactions Challenging Behavior Triggering Events Maintaining Consequences Setting Events Restless night/wakes up tired Fights/hits other students (sometimes teacher) Confusion with games rules on playground Adult intervenes Alternate Behavior 1. Yell (don’t touch) 2. Squeeze hands & stomp feet 3. Get an adult

34 Behavior Intervention Planning

35 Step 6: Plan for Implementation of the BIP
Behavior Intervention Plans outline specifically: What replacement behaviors will be taught to the student? Who will teach replacement behaviors to the student? How the student will be taught to use the replacement behaviors? What will be used to signal the student to use the new skill(s)? (natural events, teacher prompt, time, peer)

36 Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm-up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.

37 Behavioral Pathway Days with Gym
Setting Event Days with Gym Antecedent Less structured activities that involve competition Problem Behavior Negative comments about activity and to peers leading to physical contact Consequence Sent out of P.E. class Function To escape setting

38 Brief Function-based Interventions
Antecedent Strategies Behavior Lessons for all students about using respectful language with self and others and how to be to be a good sport . More frequent activities with less focus on competition (parachute, 4-square, etc...) Pre-correct Teaching Strategies Teach social skills (getting along with others, friendship, problem solving, sportsmanship) Teach how to approach gym teacher to ask for a drink of water to leave setting. Teach student how to re-enter and continue with activity Consequence Supports Acknowledgingrewarding student when uses new skills (asking for a drink of water to leave, using respectful language with peers, being a good sport, etc..) Setting Event Supports Add check-in before gym

39 Step 7: BIP Monitoring & Modification
Behavior Intervention Plans outline specifically: What behavioral changes will we expect? general outcome, long & short term goals, maintenance & generalization What methods will be used to measure and monitor progress toward the goals? “How will progress be recorded, at what frequency, and by whom?”

40 Step 7: BIP Monitoring & Modification
Behavior Support Plans outline specifically: What decision rules/criteria will be used to decide if the BIP should be maintained, faded, modified, or discontinued? Who will be responsible for monitoring the accuracy or the integrity of the implementation of the BIP? At what interval will the team monitor the BIP?

41 FBA Team Process Steps Collect information.
Develop testable hypothesis or summary statement. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. Develop “competing pathways” summary statement. Develop BIP. Develop details & routines for full implementation of BSP. Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.

42 Activity # 12 Planning the FBA Process
Begin work on these steps and complete for homework: Establish a process for referral for and completion of a FBA. Complete guiding questions in Workbook.

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