Presentation on theme: "Lead Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy Steps From the work of Rob Horner and Others."— Presentation transcript:
Lead Leading A Team from a Functional Behavior Assessment to a Behavior Intervention Plans in Seven Easy Steps From the work of Rob Horner and Others Presented By Ken Kramberg And Richard Boltax
Function Based Approach A process that focuses on changing environmental factors instead of fixing the person. It’s about what we as adults will do differently!
F B A Involves observations of student in natural environments Determine why problems occur Testable explanations The purpose is to get the information necessary to create a successful plan Plans focus primarily on prevention Assessing predictable relationships between the environment and behavior only
ERASE problem behavior E xplain - What is the problem? R eason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? A ppropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? S upport - How can you help this happen more often? E valuate - How will you know if it works?
Behavior is….. any action which is observable and measurable, and has a distinct onset and offset. secprevnten (Challenging Behavior)
KickingPinchingCursingHittingSpittingYellingDisrespectDefiance Off task Anger secprvten
Defining Target Behaviors
Only Two Basic Functions Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Existing aversive condition identified from Horner & Sugai at www.pbis.org
Ex1. Determining Function Given a task, student… 1.Whispers that work is stupid, 2.Writes on papers, 3.Says work is stupid, 4.Throws paper in waste basket, & 5.Leaves room. What is function of behavior? (Test)
Ex2. Given difficult task, student… 1.Says this work is stupid, 2.Pokes student at next table, 3.Argues with student, 4.Tells teacher to butt out, 5.Threatens teacher 6.Runs away from teacher who chases. What is function of behavior? (Test)
Irrelavant Transition Slide
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in- school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention
Functional Behavior Pathways Setting Condition Problem Behavior Antecedent Trigger Access or Avoid = reinforce Replacement Behavior
Functional Behavior Pathways Setting Condition Problem Behavior Antecedent Trigger Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior Function Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequence
Adapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999
Step 1: Define the Problem Behavior What does the problem behavior look like? Conduct interviews, review prior incidents & observations across the student’s routine/settings to define the problem behavior. 1.Observable, measurable, concrete language. NON EXAMPLE EXAMPLE poor impulse controlhigh pitched screams angry, hostile, resentfulkicking over chairs paying attentioncompletes tasks 2.Estimate how often the problem behavior occurs & how intense the problem behavior is.
STEP 2: Gathering Information What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior? Maintaining Consequences: What happens immediately after the problem behavior? What is the child trying to GET or GET AWAY from? Get social attention Get objects/access to activities Get sensory stimulation Avoid aversive task/activity Avoid aversive social contact Avoid aversive sensory stimulation
STEP 2: Gathering Information What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior? Antecedent Events (Fast Triggers): Analyze routines in the student’s day to identify… Where, when, with whom the problem behavior occurs? Where, when, with whom desirable behavior is more likely to occur? What events, contexts, demands, tasks, people reliably trigger/precede the behavior?
STEP 2: Gathering Information What sequence of events reliably predicts the problem behavior? Setting Events (Slow Triggers - Removed in Time) Events Removed in time that influence the behavior… What distal events tend to predict when the problem behavior will occur later?
Step 3: Generate a Hypothesis Statement A hypothesis statement is a summary statement that describes the team’s best guess about the relationship between the problem behavior and the characteristics of the environment- the specific contexts and the specific function. The goal of which is to identify specific CONCRETE circumstances regularly associated with the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the problem behavior.
Anatomy of an Hypothesis Statement “When ______________________________, (summarize the antecedents here) he/she will _______________________ (summarize the problem behavior here) in order to _____________________________.” (summarize the function here)
Step 4: Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Behavior Support Plans are only as effective as our understanding of the context of the problem behavior. Therefore… “Invest the time it takes, for each child, to build a precise hypothesis statement.” To be effective, Behavior Support Plans must include specific components that PROMOTE positive behavior and DETER problem behavior.
Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior Maintaining Consequence Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003
Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Independent classwork Does not have teach attention Completes task Makes noises Gets verbal praise from teacher Raises hand and asks for help or break Gets help from teacher
Behavior Intervention Program ( BIP ) Two Goals: Reduce problem behaviors Increase appropriate behaviors Make behaviors: Irrelevant Inefficient ineffective
Step 5: Design a Behavior Intervention Plan Preventive Strategies AKA: Make the problem behavior irrelevant What modifications to the environment (academic, social, physical) may PREVENT the problem behavior? What adjustments will make the problem behavior unnecessary?
Examples of Preventive Strategies Increase the effectiveness of instruction for this child (Strategy Instruction, Content Enhancement Routines) Increase academic skill levels Modify the curriculum (interest preferences, choice, sequence) Modify the demands (quantity, difficulty, input, output, groupings, alternative tasks) Clarify the expectations Reorganize the physical & interactional setting (have supplies available, pair seats, independent seats)
Desired Behavior Use words to express self & ask for help Maintaining Consequences Successful Social Interactions Setting Events Restless night/wakes up tired Triggering Events Confusion with games rules on playground Challenging Behavior Fights/hits other students (sometimes teacher) Maintaining Consequences Adult intervenes Alternate Behavior 1. Yell (don’t touch) 2. Squeeze hands & stomp feet 3. Get an adult FBA/BSP Worksheet
Behavior Intervention Planning
Step 6: Plan for Implementation of the BIP Behavior Intervention Plans outline specifically: What replacement behaviors will be taught to the student? Who will teach replacement behaviors to the student? How the student will be taught to use the replacement behaviors? What will be used to signal the student to use the new skill(s)? (natural events, teacher prompt, time, peer)
On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm- up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.
Behavioral Pathway Setting Event Days with Gym Antecedent Less structured activities that involve competition Problem Behavior Negative comments about activity and to peers leading to physical contact Consequence Sent out of P.E. class Function To escape setting
Brief Function-based Interventions Setting Event Supports Add check- in before gym Teaching Strategies Teach social skills (getting along with others, friendship, problem solving, sportsmanship) Teach how to approach gym teacher to ask for a drink of water to leave setting. Teach student how to re-enter and continue with activity Consequence Supports Acknowledgin g rewarding student when uses new skills (asking for a drink of water to leave, using respectful language with peers, being a good sport, etc..) Antecedent Strategies Behavior Lessons for all students about using respectful language with self and others and how to be to be a good sport. More frequent activities with less focus on competition (parachute, 4- square, etc...) Pre-correct
Step 7: BIP Monitoring & Modification Behavior Intervention Plans outline specifically: What behavioral changes will we expect? general outcome, long & short term goals, maintenance & generalization What methods will be used to measure and monitor progress toward the goals? “How will progress be recorded, at what frequency, and by whom?”
Step 7: BIP Monitoring & Modification Behavior Support Plans outline specifically: What decision rules/criteria will be used to decide if the BIP should be maintained, faded, modified, or discontinued? Who will be responsible for monitoring the accuracy or the integrity of the implementation of the BIP? At what interval will the team monitor the BIP?
FBA Team Process Steps 1.Collect information. 2.Develop testable hypothesis or summary statement. 3.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. 4.Develop “competing pathways” summary statement. 5.Develop BIP. 6.Develop details & routines for full implementation of BSP. 7.Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.
Activity # 12 Planning the FBA Process –Begin work on these steps and complete for homework: Establish a process for referral for and completion of a FBA. Complete guiding questions in Workbook.