Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Behavior Function and FBA Adapted from - Kevin J. Filter, Ph.D. Minnesota State University George Sugai, Ph.D. - PBIS Center."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Behavior Function and FBA Adapted from - Kevin J. Filter, Ph.D. Minnesota State University George Sugai, Ph.D. - PBIS Center
What is a Functional Behavior Assessment Problem solving process Identifies the purpose of the behavior Used to select interventions
Why do an FBA? All behavior occurs in a context All behavior serves a purpose
When will change occur? When it is clear that a different response (behavior) will be more effective and efficient AND result in the desired outcome!
Advantages of an FBA Provides information about students’ behavior Provides data trends and patterns Can be simple or intensive Identifies functions of behaviors Provides data for developing an appropriate and effective behavior plan Increases chance of positive student outcomes
Behavior Strengthened Increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.
Behaviors may result from a combination of functions Escape and sensory are often related to circumstances that are stressful or boring Attention and escape may result from difficult/boring curricular demands and not much attention Functions of Behavior
When interventions are not matched to the function, we may increase the behavior that we wish to eliminate. Function – Obtain (Attention) – Run after the student, engage in lengthy discussion Function – Escape – Suspension, Removal Class, Stay in from recess Functions - Intervention
Making the Teacher Angry Brett makes numerous comments about the teacher behind her back. Classmates laugh and teacher gets mad. Why? He’s a delinquent He’s an entertainer Bad apple
Brett: Other possibilities Long history of getting other students’ attention by insulting people (Function: obtain peer attention) Looking for a quick ticket out of class (Function: escape aversive task) Wants teacher to be flustered and discontinue instruction (Function: Escape aversive task)
Skipping Class Andrea skips chemistry two or three days per week. Why? She doesn’t care about her education She’s a truant
Andrea: Other possibilities Has meeting her drug dealer (Function: obtain sensory stimulation) Hates chemistry and doesn’t understand it (Function: escape difficult task) Friends all have free study hall at that time and she meets them at pizza place (Function: obtain peer attention)
Helping Others Brittany always asks if she can work as a tutor for her peers. Why? She’s a saint She’s responsible
Brittany: Other possibilities Loves when her peers think that she’s smart (Function: Obtain peer attention) She wants the teacher to notice how helpful she it (Function: Obtain adult attention) She is sick of doing the work that is too easy for her and would rather be challenged by teaching the material to others (Function: Escape task – too easy)
Function is relevant to ALL behavior Appropriate behavior Studying Walking Playing Inappropriate behavior Fighting Crying Disruptive behavior Function is relevant to ALL people Adults Teachers Administrators Parents Students Elementary High school
What’s the point? Knowing WHY somebody does something isn’t easy – Social psychology fact: We default to “internal” explanations for the behavior of others Clumsy, deviant, dumb, unmotivated People do things for a PURPOSE – All behaviors have consequences and those consequences affect the behavior in the future WHAT a person does doesn’t tell us WHY they do it
Form: What does it look like? Function: Why does it occur?
Continuous process… When are the behaviors most and least likely to occur? Context or routine Setting Events Discriminative Stimuli When the problem behaviors occur, what consequences appear reinforcing?
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT (FBA) How to determine function of behavior for individual students
Step 1: Defining behavior Must result in clear, measurable, & objective descriptions of individual, groups, or sequences of related behaviors Any observable or measurable action or act. Observable beginning & end Has measurable dimension(s) Frequency, duration, latency, force, topography, locus
Non- v. Observable (-)has hyperactivity (+)initiates 5 different tasks within 2 minutes (+)leaves room at least 3 times during a 30 minute lesson
Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive
Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Is aggressive
STEP 2: Collecting data on antecedents and consequences Indirect Interview Record review Direct Observation
Think A-B-C Setting EventAntecedentBehavior Consequence A B C
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Behavior Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern Events that affect value of maint. conseq.
Student-level functional approach In what contexts do behaviors occur? – Skipping class example Chemistry (this is a setting event) – Making teacher angry example Only happens with certain teacher (teacher present = setting event, teaching looking away = antecedent) What happens after the behavior – Skipping class example Meets with friends (positive reinforcer) – Making teacher angry example Gets sent to office (negative reinforcer – escape)
Step 3: Develop interventions (BIP) The purpose of FBA is to develop and implement an effective behavior intervention plan Based on the function of the behavior
Interventions Many good basic behavior interventions exist and can be used But many depend on knowing current function (reinforcers) Non-contingent reinforcement Differential reinforcement Without conducting an FBA, you can’t be certain whether an intervention will work
FBA Pros and Cons Pros Recent data suggest that FBA-based interventions are more successful than non- FBA-based interventions Relevant to all 3 tiers Cons Time-intensive Require behavioral expertise Interventions CAN be developed without them
Recent Research Recent research has compared FBA-based interventions to non-FBA-based interventions and all indicate that FBA-based interventions are superior Ingram et al., 2005 Newcomer and Lewis, 2004 Filter and Horner, 2009
Big Picture Functional logic applies to – All people, all levels of support, across all settings When you want any behaviors to change in your school, think about – Setting events, antecedents, consequences …and then CHANGE them! The purpose of FBA is to develop and implement an effective behavior intervention plan
The Process of FBA is not complete until a meaningful change has occurred in the behavior!