Presentation on theme: "Keep these all year!! Put your name on your packet!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Keep these all year!! Put your name on your packet! Grammar NotesKeep these all year!! Put your name on your packet!
2 On Second Page3. Parts of Speech - way of categorizing words in isolation (singly)(8 Parts = noun / pronoun / verb / adverb / adjective / conjunction / preposition / interjection )4. Sentence Parts - way of identifying words based on function
3 Prepositions Step One: 1. Cross off all prepositional phrases (slot test) Put an X over the preposition and label the OP and circle it!The bird flew ________ the cloud. = prepPrep +what = OP
4 Prepositional Phrases 1. Prepositional Phrase= preposition object of preposition (OP).EX: to the mall ; from the store ; except all those ; Can you think of another?
5 PrepositionsPreposition- A position word which shows relationships between objects and/or time frameSlot Test for Most Prepositions = The bird flew _____________ the clouds.A. subject/verb pairs are never found in a prepositional phraseB of and with are always prepositions if used correctly.C. If there are two prepositions in a row, cross out the second .
6 List of Prepositions above beneath down like regarding until at before Prepositions LIST:abovebeneathdownlikeregardinguntilatbeforeduringuntoacrossbetweennearsinceupalongbesideexceptuponamidbehindforofthroughoutamongbelowfromontowithafterbeyondoverthroughwithinaroundbutinoutsidetowardswithoutatopbyinsideoffaboutintounderagainstconcerningpastunderneath
7 Object of the Preposition 2.Object of a Preposition (OP)-- the who or what in a prepositional phraseEX: I went by the store. Store = object of preposition
9 Types of Verbs5. Verb – indicate tense (past, present, future); actions or state of beingThe 3 Types of Verbs:actionhelpinglinking
10 Second Page Notes – Linking Verbs 6. Linking verbs (LV) – do not show action! Link subject with nouns/pronouns or adjectives.EX His mother is an accountant The winners of the game were they.Mary became sick after the high jump.
11 State of Being VerbsState of being verbs - to be = is, am, are, was, were, be, being, beenThe REPLACEMENT TEST for linking verbs is to replace a linking verb with a form of “to be.” If it still makes sense without the meaning changed it is a LV.The FLIP-FLOP TEST for Linking Verbs is if you flip-flop the sentence around the verb and it still means the same, it is a LV.
12 *to be = (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been) Linking VerbsLinking Verbs List:*to be = (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been)
13 Complete Top Chart *to be to become to remain to taste to seem to appearto lookto soundto stayto smellto grow
14 Helping Verbs 7. Helping Verbs (HV) – begin a verb phrase EX. I may go to the store today. She did not tell him about the test. I shall wait until dark.
15 Helping Verbs List do is may shall does am must will Did are might can haswasshouldhavewerewouldhadbecouldbeingbeen
16 Action Verbs 8. Action Verbs (AV)- show/represent action EX. I jumped over a toad and landed on a frog. Our teacher gave us a huge test today.
17 Subjects3. Underline the subject once (Ask who/what plus verb)
18 Subjects9. Subject (S)- who or what (and completes the verb after prepositions are eliminated)and they must always indicate number (singular/ plural.)EX. He went to the movies without you. Maria is a wonderful host.
19 Implied You10. Implied (You) Subject- an understood “you” through a commandEX. (You) Take me with you to the park. (You) Go to the library and read a magazine.11. Subject/Verb Pairs- who or what + verb (together)EX. You are my sunshine. Garrett let the dog out earlier. (You) Take me out to the ball game.
20 Sentence Patterns12. Sentence Patterns- Six (6) basic patterns used for building blocksThe six Basic Sentence Patterns:1. S - V2. S - AV - DO3. S - AV - IO - DO4. S - LV - PN5. S - LV - PA6. V – S (inverted sentence)
21 (DO= Direct Object, IO=Indirect Object, PN=Predicate Noun, PA= Predicate Adjective) What kinds of sentence parts follow action verbs?What kind of sentence parts follow linking verbs?Can a DO ever come before an IO?Does every DO have to have an IO?Does every IO have to have a DO?Can a DO and a PN or PA appear in the same sentence?
22 Direct Objects Steps to Labeling 4. If AV (action), DO (direct object)/label IO (indirect object)13. Direct Objects (DO – Always follow an AV and receives the action of the verb (answers “what” of the verb)EX. I throw the eraser. (Verb + who or what? Throws what? eraser)
23 Indirect Objects14. Indirect Objects (IO) - always fall between AV and DO and receives the DO.EX. I throw Ben the eraser. (Who receives the DO/ Ben ?______) The DO receives the IO.I throw the eraser to Ben. (Why is Ben no longer an IO?) addition of the word “to”
24 Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives Steps to Labeling5. If LV (linking), label PN/PA (PN—equals/renames S; PA—describes S)
25 Predicate Noun15. Predicate Noun (PN) - always follows LV; noun/pronoun which renames the subjectEX. I am a teacher in the classroom. (Is the verb action/linking?) LV (Replacement/flip-flop)“I” replaces/renames “teacher” - “teacher” is the PN
26 Predicate Adjectives16. Predicate Adjective (PA)- always follows a LV and describes subjectEX. I am unhappy about the loss of my favorite team. (Is the verb action /linking?) LVUnhappy doesn’t equal I, but does it describe I? Yes Then unhappy is the what? PA
27 Noun Functions Steps to Labeling 6. Circle all noun functions (S, DO, IO, PN, OP)
28 Noun Functions 17. Noun Functions- The five functions are: OP S DO IO PN
29 7. Label all adjectives (ADJ) which modify all nouns Steps to Labeling7. Label all adjectives (ADJ) which modify all nouns
30 Adjectives 18. Adjectives (ADJ)- modifies nouns and pronouns a an the and possessives (ex. Hers) are always Adjectives.EX. The green bananas were hanging from the damaged apple tree.
31 8. Label all adverbs (ADV) which modify V, ADJ, ADV Steps to Labeling8. Label all adverbs (ADV) which modify V, ADJ, ADV
32 Adverbs19. Adverbs (ADV)- modifies everything that is not a noun/pronoun (adj., adv., verb)The ending ly is a good clue but not a sure thing! Not and very are always adverbsWhat is the only way to know for sure? Identify the word being modified.EX. I was very distraught about the loss of my friendly brother in the extremely violent storm.Adverbs answer the questions: how, when, where, and to what extent.Everything found after the adjectives (excluding conjunctions) are what? adverbs
33 ConjunctionsSteps to Labeling9. Find conjunctions
34 20. Conjunctions- connect elements; combine and connect EX. The football and baseball players are rowdy. What are they connecting? nouns
35 ConjunctionsThe three types are:coordinatesubordinatecorrelative
36 Coordinate conjunctions- 21. Coordinate conjunctions- connect items of the same kindThe Eight include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, ; (punctuation mark)A good way to remember these eight is the mnemonic device? FAN BOYSEX. He ran and tripped. Mike and Billy-Bob had a party. He threw the hammer and the sickle.He went to the movie, and he fell asleep. What are these conjunctions connecting? Verbs, subjects
37 Subordinate Conjunctions 22. Subordinate Conjunctions- make independent clauses into dependent clausesEX. I saw my friend. Before I saw my friend, I was very sad.
38 List of Subordinate Conjunctions afteras long asifunlesswherethanalthoughas soon asin order thatuntilwhereverthoughasbecausesincewhenwhileas ifbeforeso thatwhenever
39 Correlative Conjunctions 23. Correlative Conjunction- connect items of same kind in pairsList of Correlative Conjunctionsboth – andnot only – but alsoeither – orneither –norwhether - or
40 Interjections Steps to Labeling Add: Label Interjections – Int 24. Interjections ( INJ ) – show expression and are followed by (!)EX. WOW! Hurray! Ooops! Can you think of two others? Ouch! Snap!