Presentation on theme: "KEEP THESE ALL YEAR!! PUT YOUR NAME ON YOUR PACKET! Grammar Notes."— Presentation transcript:
KEEP THESE ALL YEAR!! PUT YOUR NAME ON YOUR PACKET! Grammar Notes
On Second Page 3. Parts of Speech - way of categorizing words in isolation (singly) (8 Parts = noun / pronoun / verb / adverb / adjective / conjunction / preposition / interjection ) 4. Sentence Parts - way of identifying words based on function
Prepositions Step One: 1. Cross off all prepositional phrases (slot test) Put an X over the preposition and label the OP and circle it! The bird flew ________ the cloud. = prep Prep +what = OP
Prepositional Phrases 1. Prepositional Phrase= preposition + object of preposition (OP). EX: to the mall ; from the store ; except all those ; Can you think of another?
Prepositions Preposition- A position word which shows relationships between objects and/or time frame Slot Test for Most Prepositions = The bird flew _____________ the clouds. A. subject/verb pairs are never found in a prepositional phrase B. of and with are always prepositions if used correctly. C. If there are two prepositions in a row, cross out the second.
List of Prepositions abovebeneathdownlikeregardinguntil atbeforeduring unto acrossbetween nearsinceup alongbesideexcept upon amidbehindforofthroughout amongbelowfromontowith afterbeyond overthroughwithin aroundbutinoutsidetowardswithout atopbyinsideoff about into under againstconcerning pastunderneath Prepositions LIST :
Object of the Preposition 2.Object of a Preposition (OP)-- the who or what in a prepositional phrase EX: I went by the store. Store = object of preposition
Types of Verbs 5. Verb – indicate tense (past, present, future); actions or state of being The 3 Types of Verbs: action helping linking
Second Page Notes – Linking Verbs 6. Linking verbs (LV) – do not show action! Link subject with nouns/pronouns or adjectives. EX. His mother is an accountant. The winners of the game were they. Mary became sick after the high jump.
State of Being Verbs State of being verbs - to be = is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been The REPLACEMENT TEST for linking verbs is to replace a linking verb with a form of “to be.” If it still makes sense without the meaning changed it is a LV. The FLIP-FLOP TEST for Linking Verbs is if you flip-flop the sentence around the verb and it still means the same, it is a LV.
Linking Verbs Linking Verbs List: *to be = (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been)
Complete Top Chart *to beto becometo remain to tasteto seem to appear to look to sound to stay to smellto grow
Helping Verbs 7. Helping Verbs (HV) – begin a verb phrase EX. I may go to the store today. She did not tell him about the test. I shall wait until dark.
Helping Verbs List
Action Verbs 8. Action Verbs (AV)- show/represent action EX. I jumped over a toad and landed on a frog. Our teacher gave us a huge test today.
Subjects 3. Underline the subject once (Ask who/what plus verb)
Subjects 9. Subject (S)- who or what (and completes the verb after prepositions are eliminated) and they must always indicate number (singular/ plural.) EX. He went to the movies without you. Maria is a wonderful host.
Implied You 10. Implied (You) Subject- an understood “you” through a command EX. (You) Take me with you to the park. (You) Go to the library and read a magazine. 11. Subject/Verb Pairs- who or what + verb (together) EX. You are my sunshine. Garrett let the dog out earlier. (You) Take me out to the ball game.
Sentence Patterns 12. Sentence Patterns- Six (6) basic patterns used for building blocks The six Basic Sentence Patterns: 1. S - V 2. S - AV - DO 3. S - AV - IO - DO 4. S - LV - PN 5. S - LV - PA 6. V – S (inverted sentence)
(DO= Direct Object, IO=Indirect Object, PN=Predicate Noun, PA= Predicate Adjective) What kinds of sentence parts follow action verbs? What kind of sentence parts follow linking verbs? Can a DO ever come before an IO? Does every DO have to have an IO? Does every IO have to have a DO? Can a DO and a PN or PA appear in the same sentence?
Direct Objects Steps to Labeling 4. If AV (action), DO (direct object)/label IO (indirect object) 13. Direct Objects (DO – Always follow an AV and receives the action of the verb (answers “what” of the verb) EX. I throw the eraser. (Verb + who or what? Throws what? eraser)
Indirect Objects 14. Indirect Objects (IO) - always fall between AV and DO and receives the DO. EX. I throw Ben the eraser. (Who receives the DO/ Ben ?______) The DO receives the IO. I throw the eraser to Ben. (Why is Ben no longer an IO?) addition of the word “to”
Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives Steps to Labeling 5. If LV (linking), label PN/PA (PN—equals/renames S; PA— describes S)
Predicate Noun 15. Predicate Noun (PN) - always follows LV; noun/pronoun which renames the subject EX. I am a teacher in the classroom. (Is the verb action/linking?) LV (Replacement/flip-flop) “I” replaces/renames “teacher” - “teacher” is the PN
Predicate Adjectives 16. Predicate Adjective (PA)- always follows a LV and describes subject EX. I am unhappy about the loss of my favorite team. (Is the verb action /linking?) LV Unhappy doesn’t equal I, but does it describe I? Yes Then unhappy is the what? PA
Noun Functions Steps to Labeling 6. Circle all noun functions (S, DO, IO, PN, OP)
Noun Functions 17. Noun Functions- The five functions are: OP S DO IO PN
Adjectives Steps to Labeling 7. Label all adjectives (ADJ) which modify all nouns
Adjectives 18. Adjectives (ADJ)- modifies nouns and pronouns a an the and possessives (ex. Hers) are always Adjectives. EX. The green bananas were hanging from the damaged apple tree.
Adverbs Steps to Labeling 8. Label all adverbs (ADV) which modify V, ADJ, ADV
Adverbs 19. Adverbs (ADV)- modifies everything that is not a noun/pronoun (adj., adv., verb) The ending ly is a good clue but not a sure thing! Not and very are always adverbs What is the only way to know for sure? Identify the word being modified. EX. I was very distraught about the loss of my friendly brother in the extremely violent storm. Adverbs answer the questions: how, when, where, and to what extent. Everything found after the adjectives (excluding conjunctions) are what? adverbs
Conjunctions Steps to Labeling 9. Find conjunctions
Conjunctions 20. Conjunctions- connect elements; combine and connect EX. The football and baseball players are rowdy. What are they connecting? nouns
Conjunctions The three types are: coordinate subordinate correlative
Coordinate conjunctions- 21. Coordinate conjunctions- connect items of the same kind The Eight include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, ; (punctuation mark) A good way to remember these eight is the mnemonic device? FAN BOYS EX. He ran and tripped. Mike and Billy-Bob had a party. He threw the hammer and the sickle. He went to the movie, and he fell asleep. What are these conjunctions connecting? Verbs, subjects
Subordinate Conjunctions 22. Subordinate Conjunctions- make independent clauses into dependent clauses EX. I saw my friend. Before I saw my friend, I was very sad.
List of Subordinate Conjunctions afteras long as ifunlesswherethan althoug h as soon as in order that untilwhereverthough asbecausesincewhenwhile as ifbeforeso thatwheneve r
Correlative Conjunctions 23. Correlative Conjunction- connect items of same kind in pairs List of Correlative Conjunctions both – and not only – but also either – or neither –norwhether - or
Interjections Steps to Labeling Add: Label Interjections – Int 24. Interjections ( INJ ) – show expression and are followed by (!) EX. WOW! Hurray! Ooops! Can you think of two others? Ouch! Snap!