Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The 8 Principal Parts of Speech

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The 8 Principal Parts of Speech"— Presentation transcript:

1 The 8 Principal Parts of Speech

2 Noun A noun names a person, place, thing, quality, or condition. Nouns have number: singular and plural and gender: masculine, feminine or neuter. Types of Nouns Proper nouns name a specific person, place, thing, quality, or condition. They are always capitalized. Common nouns name ordinary persons, places, things, qualities, or conditions. *Frequent noun suffixes: -ion, -er/-or, -on, -ity, -ing (without a preceding helping verb).

3 Pronoun A pronoun replaces a noun or other pronoun. All pronouns have number and gender. ALL pronouns need clearly stated antecedents. Antecedent: a noun to which the pronoun refers or a noun the pronoun replaces.

4 Types of Pronouns (Examples and explanations follow.)
Personal: replace people; reflect CASE (usage) and PERSON (who is speaking) Reflexive: refer to –self/-selves Demonstrative: replace by pointing out nouns/pronouns Interrogative: ask questions Indefinite: replace non-specific Relative: connects a noun or adjective clause to the independent clause

5 Personal and Reflexive Pronouns
Nominative Used as subject or predicate nominative Objective Used as direct or indirect object or object of a preposition Possessive Used to show ownership; may also be possessive adjectives Reflexive Used to refer to self 1st I me my, mine myself 2nd you your, yours yourself 3rd he, she, it him, her, it his, her, hers, its himself, herself, itself we us our, ours ourselves yourselves they them their, theirs themselves

6 Types of Pronouns Demonstrative
Interrogative: when response is a noun/pronoun Who? replaces people; nominative case Whose? replaces people; possessive case Whom? replaces people; objective case Which? replaces objects/places; nominative, objective, possessive case What? replaces objects/places; nominative or objective case singular plural near this these far that those

7 Types of Pronouns Indefinite
Always singular: each, either, neither, one no every one some any body Always plural: both, few, several, many Either depending on antecedent: some, all, any, none, most

8 Types of Pronouns Relative who refers to people; nominative case
whom refers to people; objective case whose refers to people; possessive case which refers to things/places; all cases that refers to all; all cases

9 Adjective An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
It will answer the following questions: - What kind of noun/pronoun? - Which noun/pronoun? - How many noun/pronoun? *Frequent adjective suffixes: -ive, -ous, -ate, -al, -ful

10 Types of Adjectives (Examples and explanations follow.)
Article: state a noun/pronoun will follow Demonstrative: show nouns/pronouns Interrogative: ask questions about nouns/pronouns Indefinite: describe non-specific

11 Types of Adjectives Articles (the, a/an)
Definite: speaker and audience share specific noun/pronoun Indefinite: speaker and audience relate unknown noun/pronoun Demonstrative (used before a noun/pronoun) singular plural near this these far that those

12 Types of Adjectives Interrogative (used before a noun/pronoun)
What? Which? Indefinite (used before a noun/pronoun) Each - Most Either - No Neither All Some One Any

13 Verb A verb is a word that shows action, state of being, links a word in the subject to a word in the predicate, or helps another verb show tense. A verb phrase is one or more helping verbs and a main verb that show action, state of being, or link a word in the subject to a word in the predicate. The group of words functions as one verb.

14 Types of Verbs (Examples and explanations follow.)
Action: Can you or could you do it? Linking: functions like an = Helping: helps other verbs show tense Tense is the time the verb shows. Frequent verb suffixes: -ed, -ing

15 Types of Verbs Action Verbs
Transitive: must be used with a direct object Direct Object: Find these three criteria: Noun or pronoun After Action Verb Answers: (Action Verb) whom? (Action Verb) what? Intransitive: never a direct object after it

16 Types of Verbs Linking Verbs seem stay is smell grow are
taste remain was look appear were feel become be sound being been

17 Types of Verbs Helping Verbs (always followed by another verb in a
verb phrase) am can shall is may will are must have was might has were could had be would do being should did been does

18 Adverb An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It will answer the following: (verb/adjective/adverb) how? “ when? “ where? “ why? “ to what extent? how long/much? “ under what conditions? Frequent adverb suffixes: -ly (Not all -ly words are adverbs.) Always adverbs: not, never, always, very, soon, too, also

19 Prepositions A preposition is a word that relates a noun or pronoun after it to another word in the sentence. The noun or pronoun after the preposition is called the Object of the Preposition. A preposition may not exist in a sentence without an object. Think of it as anywhere a cat can be or go in relationship to a house. (p. 352)

20 Conjunction A conjunction connects words or groups of words.
Types of Conjunctions (Examples and explanations follow.) - Coordinate/coordinating - Correlative - Subordinate

21 Types of Conjunctions Coordinate/Coordinating: joins equal words or
groups of words and: joins equals but: excludes equals or: allows choice nor: negative choice for: similar to because yet: similar to but

22 Types of Conjunction Correlative Conjunctions: joins equal words
or groups of words; found in pairs -either … or -neither … nor -both … and -not only …but also

23 Types of Conjunctions Subordinate: joins unequal parts of sentences; usually an adverb clause to an independent clause Examples: because, so, when, if, where, while (p. 419)

24 Interjection An interjection shows emotion or strong feeling but has no other grammatical tie to the sentence. Types of Interjections Mild interjections are punctuated with a comma and are not separated from the rest of the sentence Strong interjections are punctuated with an exclamation point and are separated from the rest of the sentence.

Download ppt "The 8 Principal Parts of Speech"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google