2 NounA noun names a person, place, thing, quality, or condition. Nouns have number: singular and plural and gender: masculine, feminine or neuter.Types of NounsProper nouns name a specific person, place, thing, quality, or condition. They are always capitalized. Common nouns name ordinary persons, places, things, qualities, or conditions. *Frequent noun suffixes: -ion, -er/-or, -on, -ity, -ing (without a preceding helping verb).
3 PronounA pronoun replaces a noun or other pronoun. All pronouns have number and gender.ALL pronouns need clearly stated antecedents.Antecedent: a noun to which the pronoun refers or a noun the pronoun replaces.
4 Types of Pronouns (Examples and explanations follow.) Personal: replace people; reflect CASE (usage)and PERSON (who is speaking)Reflexive: refer to –self/-selvesDemonstrative: replace by pointing outnouns/pronounsInterrogative: ask questionsIndefinite: replace non-specificRelative: connects a noun or adjective clauseto the independent clause
5 Personal and Reflexive Pronouns NominativeUsed as subject or predicate nominativeObjectiveUsed as direct or indirect object or object of a prepositionPossessiveUsed to show ownership;may also be possessive adjectivesReflexiveUsed to refer to self1stImemy, minemyself2ndyouyour, yoursyourself3rdhe, she, ithim, her, ithis,her, hers,itshimself,herself,itselfweusour, oursourselvesyourselvestheythemtheir, theirsthemselves
6 Types of Pronouns Demonstrative Interrogative: when response is a noun/pronounWho? replaces people; nominative caseWhose? replaces people; possessive caseWhom? replaces people; objective caseWhich? replaces objects/places; nominative, objective,possessive caseWhat? replaces objects/places; nominative or objectivecasesingularpluralnearthisthesefarthatthose
7 Types of Pronouns Indefinite Always singular: each, either, neither, oneno every onesome any bodyAlways plural: both, few, several, manyEither depending on antecedent: some, all, any, none, most
8 Types of Pronouns Relative who refers to people; nominative case whom refers to people; objective casewhose refers to people; possessive casewhich refers to things/places; all casesthat refers to all; all cases
9 Adjective An adjective describes a noun or pronoun. It will answer the following questions:- What kind of noun/pronoun?- Which noun/pronoun?- How many noun/pronoun?*Frequent adjective suffixes: -ive, -ous, -ate, -al, -ful
10 Types of Adjectives (Examples and explanations follow.) Article: state a noun/pronoun will followDemonstrative: show nouns/pronounsInterrogative: ask questions aboutnouns/pronounsIndefinite: describe non-specific
11 Types of Adjectives Articles (the, a/an) Definite: speaker and audience share specificnoun/pronounIndefinite: speaker and audience relateunknown noun/pronounDemonstrative (used before a noun/pronoun)singular pluralnear this thesefar that those
12 Types of Adjectives Interrogative (used before a noun/pronoun) What?Which?Indefinite (used before a noun/pronoun)Each - MostEither - NoNeither AllSome OneAny
13 VerbA verb is a word that shows action, state of being, links a word in the subject to a word in the predicate, or helps another verb show tense.A verb phrase is one or more helping verbs and a main verb that show action, state of being, or link a word in the subject to a word in the predicate. The group of words functions as one verb.
14 Types of Verbs (Examples and explanations follow.) Action: Can you or could you do it?Linking: functions like an =Helping: helps other verbs show tenseTense is the time the verb shows.Frequent verb suffixes: -ed, -ing
15 Types of Verbs Action Verbs Transitive: must be used with a direct objectDirect Object: Find these three criteria:Noun or pronounAfter Action VerbAnswers: (Action Verb) whom?(Action Verb) what?Intransitive: never a direct object after it
16 Types of Verbs Linking Verbs seem stay is smell grow are taste remain waslook appear werefeel become besound being been
17 Types of Verbs Helping Verbs (always followed by another verb in a verb phrase)am can shallis may willare must havewas might haswere could hadbe would dobeing should didbeen does
18 AdverbAn adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.It will answer the following:(verb/adjective/adverb) how?“ when?“ where?“ why?“ to what extent? how long/much?“ under what conditions?Frequent adverb suffixes: -ly (Not all -ly words areadverbs.)Always adverbs: not, never, always, very, soon, too,also
19 PrepositionsA preposition is a word that relates a noun or pronoun after it to another word in the sentence.The noun or pronoun after the preposition is called the Object of the Preposition. A preposition may not exist in a sentence without an object.Think of it as anywhere a cat can be or go in relationship to a house. (p. 352)
20 Conjunction A conjunction connects words or groups of words. Types of Conjunctions(Examples and explanations follow.)- Coordinate/coordinating- Correlative- Subordinate
21 Types of Conjunctions Coordinate/Coordinating: joins equal words or groups of wordsand: joins equalsbut: excludes equalsor: allows choicenor: negative choicefor: similar to becauseyet: similar to but
22 Types of Conjunction Correlative Conjunctions: joins equal words or groups of words;found in pairs-either … or-neither … nor-both … and-not only …but also
23 Types of ConjunctionsSubordinate: joins unequal parts of sentences; usually an adverb clause to an independent clauseExamples: because, so, when, if, where,while (p. 419)
24 InterjectionAn interjection shows emotion or strong feeling but has no other grammatical tie to the sentence.Types of InterjectionsMild interjections are punctuated with a comma and are not separated from the rest of the sentenceStrong interjections are punctuated with an exclamation point and are separated from the rest of the sentence.