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Understanding the Functions of the Parts of Speech Sentence Diagramming
Parts of Speech to Understand Verb Subject (Noun) Direct object (Noun) Indirect object Articles and Possessives Adjectives Adverbs Prepositional Phrases
STEP ONE: Find the VERB
Verbs (pg. 360) A verb expresses time while showing an action, a condition, or the fact that something exists Examples: WorkIsBeginPracticeCome RulesStrikeJump
Types of Verbs Transitive: a verb that directs action towards someone or something named in the same sentence. These verbs always have a Direct Object. The teacher carried her grade book. I baked cookies. Intransitive: Does not direct action towards someone or something named in the same sentence. Never have a direct object. She cried yesterday. She runs fast.
Types of Verbs Linking: do not show action. Connects a word at or near the beginning with a word at or near the end. He is happy. She was sad. The forms of “be” are the most common linking verbs, but are not always linking verbs. A list of the forms of “be” is on page 366.
Types of Verbs Helping: verbs that can be added to another verb to make a single verb phrase. Many of the forms of “be” can be helping verbs, as well as many other verbs. See page 370. My students will get good grades. I am going shopping tonight.
Diagramming Verbs Diagramming Verbs: The first step to diagramming a sentence is to find the verb. Start out your diagram like this: _________________|______VERB________ She ran to the store. _________________|______RAN________ I fell asleep. _________________|______FELL________
STEP TWO Find the SUBJECT
SUBJECT The word or group of words in a sentence that tells whom or what the sentence is about. The teacher carried her grade book. I baked cookies. Is Sara the winner?
Subject The subject can be ANY type of noun: Person Place Thing Pronoun Gerund
Diagramming the Subject _____SUBJECT______|______VERB_______ She ran to the store. ______SHE__________|______RAN________ I fell asleep. _______I_________|______FELL________
STEP THREE Find the Direct Object
Direct Object (pg 434) A noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb. Ask WHAT? of the transitive verb. I threw the ball. Matt gave Tory a high five. The groomer cut my dog’s hair.
Diagramming the Direct Object _SUBJECT__|___VERB__|______DO______ I threw the ball. _I__|___THREW__|______BALL______ Matt gave Tory a high five. _MATT__|___GAVE__|___HIGH FIVE____ The groomer cut my dog’s hair. _GROOMER__|___CUT__|______HAIR_____
STEP FOUR Find the Indirect Object
Indirect Object (pg. 437) An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that appears with a direct object and names the person or thing that something is given to or done for. As TO WHOM? or FOR WHOM? of the Direct Object Matt gave Tory a high five. The teacher handed the students a handout. My mom made me cookies.
Diagramming the Indirect Object ___SUBJECT__|____VERB_|____DO____ | INDIRECT OBJECT
Matt gave Tory a high five. ___MATT__|____GAVE_|____HIGH FIVE____ | The teacher handed the students a handout. __TEACHER__|_HANDED_|_HIGH FIVE__ | My mom made me cookies. ___MOM__|____MADE_|____COOKIES____ | TORY STUDENTS ME
STEP FIVE Articles and Possessives
Articles (pg 382) “The” is a definite article. It indicates that the noun it modifies refers to a specific person. “A” and “An” are indefinite articles. They indicate that the nouns they modify refer to any one of a class of people, places, or things. The dog is wearing a collar. Tell me a story.
Possessives Ask WHOSE? Includes the Possessive Case Pronouns Jaime should hand me my cookie. Paul is wearing his shirt. Use –’s to indicate ownership (pg 712) Jessica’s blanket is a fleece. Sara’s car drove into a puddle.
Diagramming Articles and Possessives Jaime should hand me my cookie. _JAIME_|_SHOULD HAND_|__COOKIE___ | | Paul is wearing his shirt. _PAUL_|_IS WEARING_|__SHIRT___ | ME MY HIS
Diagramming Articles and Possessives Jessica’s blanket is a fleece. _BLANKET_|_IS_ | Sara’s car drove into a puddle. _CAR_|_DROVE_ | JESSICA’S SARA’S
STEP SIX Find Adjectives
Adjectives (pg 380) An adjective is a word used to describe a noun or pronoun or to give a noun or pronoun a more specific meaning Questions to ask: What kind? A tall boy Which one? That boy How many? Seven dogs How much? Few dollars
Adverbs (pg. 390) An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. They answer the questions: Where? When? In what way? To what extent?
Adverbs Adverbs can be placed in MANY different positions. Please refer to the chart on page 390. Examples: I jumped away from the falling rock. My cousins arrived at my house yesterday. The principal angrily scolded the misbehaving student. You need to understand fully what the assignment is before you try to begin it.
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