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Skeletal, Muscular and Integumentary Systems
Skeletal System – 206 bones
Skeleton Functions Supports and shapes the body
Skeleton Functions Protection of internal organs
Skeleton Functions Muscles and bones provide movement
Skeleton Functions Mineral storage – calcium and phosphorus salts
Skeleton Functions Blood cells formation
Skeleton Parts Bone marrow – soft tissue at the center of bones
Skeleton Parts Joints – place where one or more bones meet
Skeleton Parts Cartilage – line surface of bones; does not contain blood vessels
Skeleton Parts Ligaments – elastic tissue that hold the bones together
Axial Skeleton (green)Support the central axis of the body: skull, vertebrae, and rib cage
Appendicular Skeleton (lavender)Bones of the arms and legs, pelvis and shoulder blades
Structure of Bones Periosteum – tough layer of connective tissue
Structure of Bones Compact bone – dense thick layer beneath the periosteum
Structure of Bones Harvesian canals – part of the compact bone where nerves and blood vessels run through
Structure of Bones Spongy bone – at the end of long bones and in the middle of flat bones, add strength to bones
Structure of Bones Bone marrow – cavities within the bone that contain soft tissue
Bone Marrow Yellow bone marrow – cells store fat
Bone Marrow Red bone marrow – produces most types of blood cells
Active sites of red bone marrow
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone Processes Ossification – bone formation, begins at 7 months before birth
Bone Cells Osteoblasts – secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage in developing bones
Bone Cells Osteocyte – mature osteoblast, help maintain mineral in bones
Bone Cells Osteoclast – break down bone mineral to avoid build up
Bone Disorders Osteoporosis – weak bones due to loss of density
Effects of osteoporosis
Joints – permit bone to move without damaging each other
Immovable Joints Bones that grow together until they are fused, allow no movement
Slightly Movable JointsBones separated from each other and permit a small amount of movement
Freely Movable Joints Permit movement in two or more directions
Hinge Joint Back and forth motion
Saddle Joint Bone can slide in two directions
Pivot Joint Bone rotate or turn around another
Joint Injuries ACL - ligament in knee prevents the tibia from shifting too far foward
Joint Injuries Bursitis – inflammation due to synovial fluid build up
Joint Injuries Osteoarthritis – cartilage break down caused by wear and tear over the years
Never Forget Your Skeleton
Muscular System Tendons – bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones
Types of Muscles Skeletal muscles – usually attached to bones
Smooth Muscle Move your internal organs
Types of Muscles
Voluntary Muscle Muscles you can control: skeletal muscles
Involuntary Muscle Muscles you cannot control
What does doing this help to relieve?
Answer: Relieves Headaches
Exercise and Health 1. important for good health
Exercise and Health 2. Good body tone
Exercise and Health 3. aerobic exercise – increase physical endurance
Exercise and Health 4. Bone strength – thicker and stronger and less likely to be injured
Exercise and Health 5. resistance exercise
Exercise and Health 6. Live longer
Or be big
Function of Skin - Protectiona. barrier against pathogens and debris
Function of Skin - Protectionb. prevents body from drying out
Function of Skin - Protectionc. UV radiation
Function of Skin - Protectiond. Nails protect fingers and toes
Function of the Skin 2. temperature regulation – keep enough heat in to maintain normal body temperature
Temperature RegulationHair prevents heat loss from the head
Function of the Skin 3. Excretion – release of sweat that contains waste products
Function of the Skin 4. Sensory receptor – information gathering: pressure, heat, cold, and pain
Function of the Skin 5. Vit. D production – needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the small intestine
Layers of the Skin 1. Epidermis – outer layer of the skin
Epidermis a. Dead cells layer
Epidermis b. Living cells replace dead ones every 4-6 weeks
Epidermis c. Keratin (protein) – basic component of hair and nails
Epidermis d. Melanin – absorbs UV radiation
Layer of the Skin 2. Dermis – lies beneath the epidermis
Dermis a. Makes collagen
Dermis b. Contains blood vessels
Dermis c. Nerve endings
Dermis d. Sebum – oily substance to keep the epidermis waterproof; acidic to kill bacteria
Dermis e. Smooth muscle
Hair Follicles – pockets of epidermal cells that extend into the dermis
Nails Keratin plate-like that protects the fingers and toes
Skin Problems 1. Acne – develop when sebum and dead skin cells form a plug in the hair follicle
Skin Problems 2. Hives – red welts caused by an allergic reaction to food or medicine
Skin Problems 3. Skin cancer – abnormal growth of cells in the skin
Skin Cancer a. Melanoma – most dangerous form
Skin Cancer b.
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