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Skeletal, Muscular and Integumentary Systems. Body Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal, Muscular and Integumentary Systems. Body Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal, Muscular and Integumentary Systems

2 Body Systems

3 Skeletal System – 206 bones

4 Skeleton Functions Supports and shapes the body Supports and shapes the body

5 Skeleton Functions Protection of internal organs Protection of internal organs

6 Skeleton Functions Muscles and bones provide movement Muscles and bones provide movement

7 Skeleton Functions Mineral storage – calcium and phosphorus salts Mineral storage – calcium and phosphorus salts

8 Skeleton Functions Blood cells formation Blood cells formation

9 Skeleton Parts Bone marrow – soft tissue at the center of bones Bone marrow – soft tissue at the center of bones

10 Skeleton Parts Joints – place where one or more bones meet Joints – place where one or more bones meet

11 Skeleton Parts Cartilage – line surface of bones; does not contain blood vessels Cartilage – line surface of bones; does not contain blood vessels

12 Skeleton Parts Ligaments – elastic tissue that hold the bones together Ligaments – elastic tissue that hold the bones together

13 Axial Skeleton (green) Support the central axis of the body: skull, vertebrae, and rib cage Support the central axis of the body: skull, vertebrae, and rib cage

14 Appendicular Skeleton (lavender) Bones of the arms and legs, pelvis and shoulder blades Bones of the arms and legs, pelvis and shoulder blades

15 Structure of Bones Periosteum – tough layer of connective tissue Periosteum – tough layer of connective tissue

16 Structure of Bones Compact bone – dense thick layer beneath the periosteum Compact bone – dense thick layer beneath the periosteum

17 Structure of Bones Harvesian canals – part of the compact bone where nerves and blood vessels run through Harvesian canals – part of the compact bone where nerves and blood vessels run through

18 Structure of Bones Spongy bone – at the end of long bones and in the middle of flat bones, add strength to bones Spongy bone – at the end of long bones and in the middle of flat bones, add strength to bones

19 Spongy Bone

20 Structure of Bones Bone marrow – cavities within the bone that contain soft tissue Bone marrow – cavities within the bone that contain soft tissue

21 Bone Marrow Yellow bone marrow – cells store fat Yellow bone marrow – cells store fat

22 Bone Marrow Red bone marrow – produces most types of blood cells Red bone marrow – produces most types of blood cells

23 Active sites of red bone marrow

24 Bone Marrow Transplant

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27 Bone Processes Ossification – bone formation, begins at 7 months before birth Ossification – bone formation, begins at 7 months before birth

28 Bone Cells Osteoblasts – secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage in developing bones Osteoblasts – secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage in developing bones

29 Bone Cells Osteocyte – mature osteoblast, help maintain mineral in bones Osteocyte – mature osteoblast, help maintain mineral in bones

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31 Bone Cells Osteoclast – break down bone mineral to avoid build up Osteoclast – break down bone mineral to avoid build up

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34 Bone Disorders Osteoporosis – weak bones due to loss of density Osteoporosis – weak bones due to loss of density

35 Osteoporosis prevention

36 Effects of osteoporosis

37 Joints – permit bone to move without damaging each other

38 Immovable Joints Bones that grow together until they are fused, allow no movement Bones that grow together until they are fused, allow no movement

39 Slightly Movable Joints Bones separated from each other and permit a small amount of movement Bones separated from each other and permit a small amount of movement

40 Freely Movable Joints Permit movement in two or more directions Permit movement in two or more directions

41 Ball-and-Socket Joint

42 Hinge Joint Back and forth motion Back and forth motion

43 Saddle Joint Bone can slide in two directions Bone can slide in two directions

44 Pivot Joint Bone rotate or turn around another Bone rotate or turn around another

45 Joint Injuries ACL - ligament in knee prevents the tibia from shifting too far foward ACL - ligament in knee prevents the tibia from shifting too far foward

46 ACL Injury

47 Joint Injuries Bursitis – inflammation due to synovial fluid build up Bursitis – inflammation due to synovial fluid build up

48 Bursitis

49 Joint Injuries Osteoarthritis – cartilage break down caused by wear and tear over the years Osteoarthritis – cartilage break down caused by wear and tear over the years

50 Osteoarthritis

51 Osteoarthritis

52 Never Forget Your Skeleton

53 Muscular System Tendons – bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones Tendons – bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones

54 Tendonitis

55 Types of Muscles Skeletal muscles – usually attached to bones Skeletal muscles – usually attached to bones

56 Skeletal muscles

57 Smooth Muscle Move your internal organs Move your internal organs

58 Cardiac Muscle

59 Types of Muscles

60 Voluntary Muscle Muscles you can control: skeletal muscles Muscles you can control: skeletal muscles

61 Involuntary Muscle Muscles you cannot control Muscles you cannot control

62 What does doing this help to relieve?

63

64 Answer: Relieves Headaches

65 Exercise and Health 1. important for good health 1. important for good health

66 Exercise and Health 2. Good body tone 2. Good body tone

67 Exercise and Health 3. aerobic exercise – increase physical endurance 3. aerobic exercise – increase physical endurance

68 Exercise and Health 4. Bone strength – thicker and stronger and less likely to be injured 4. Bone strength – thicker and stronger and less likely to be injured

69 Exercise and Health 5. resistance exercise 5. resistance exercise

70 Exercise and Health 6. Live longer 6. Live longer

71 Be fit

72 Or be big

73 Integumentary System

74 Function of Skin - Protection a. barrier against pathogens and debris a. barrier against pathogens and debris

75 Function of Skin - Protection b. prevents body from drying out

76 Function of Skin - Protection c. UV radiation

77 Function of Skin - Protection d. Nails protect fingers and toes

78 Function of the Skin 2. temperature regulation – keep enough heat in to maintain normal body temperature

79 Temperature Regulation Hair prevents heat loss from the head Hair prevents heat loss from the head

80 Function of the Skin 3. Excretion – release of sweat that contains waste products

81 Function of the Skin 4. Sensory receptor – information gathering: pressure, heat, cold, and pain

82 Function of the Skin 5. Vit. D production – needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the small intestine

83 Layers of the Skin 1. Epidermis – outer layer of the skin

84 Epidermis a. Dead cells layer

85 Epidermis b. Living cells replace dead ones every 4-6 weeks

86 Epidermis c. Keratin (protein) – basic component of hair and nails

87 Epidermis d. Melanin – absorbs UV radiation

88 Layer of the Skin 2. Dermis – lies beneath the epidermis

89 Dermis a. Makes collagen

90 Dermis b. Contains blood vessels

91 Dermis c. Nerve endings

92 Dermis d. Sebum – oily substance to keep the epidermis waterproof; acidic to kill bacteria

93 Dermis e. Smooth muscle

94 Hair Follicles – pockets of epidermal cells that extend into the dermis Follicles – pockets of epidermal cells that extend into the dermis

95 Nails Keratin plate-like that protects the fingers and toes Keratin plate-like that protects the fingers and toes

96 Skin Problems 1. Acne – develop when sebum and dead skin cells form a plug in the hair follicle

97 Skin Problems 2. Hives – red welts caused by an allergic reaction to food or medicine

98 Skin Problems 3. Skin cancer – abnormal growth of cells in the skin

99 Skin Cancer a. Melanoma – most dangerous form

100 Skin Cancer b.

101 The End


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