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32.1: The Skeletal System By: Brett Oosdyke.

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Presentation on theme: "32.1: The Skeletal System By: Brett Oosdyke."— Presentation transcript:

1 32.1: The Skeletal System By: Brett Oosdyke

2 The Skeletal System Function: Provides shape and support
Allows movement Protects tissues and organs Stores certain minerals Produces blood cells

3 The Skeletal System Bones- A solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium. Structures of a bone: Periosteum- The tough layer outer layer of the bone. Compact Bone- contains Haversian canals that contain blood vessels and nerves Spongy Bone- found in the ends of bones and produces RBC. Yellow bone Marrow- made of fat cells. Red Marrow- Produces RBC, WBC, and platelets.

4 The Skeletal System Cartilage- Strong, connective tissue that supports the body. Softer and more flexible than bone *There are approximately 206 bones in the human body.*

5 The Skeletal System Cartilage is gradually replaced by bone during a process called ossification. Osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage in developing bones. Osteocytes help maintain the minerals in bone tissue and continue to strengthen the growing bone.

6 The Skeletal System Ligaments- Hold bone to bone. Example: Hold bones together in knee; ACL. Tendons- Hold muscle to the bones. Example: Achilles tendon attaches to the calf.

7 The Skeletal System Joint- is any place where two bones come together.
-Types of Joints: Movable- prevent movement in one or more directions. Examples: pivot joint (radius and ulna); ball and socket (arm into shoulder) Semi-movable- allow a little bit of restricted movement. Example: Vertebrae. Immovable- allow no movement at all. Example: Skull

8 The Skeletal System Skeletal Disorders:
Arthritis: Inflammation of joints Osteoporosis: loss of calcium in bones leading to weakening of bones

9 32.3 The Integumentary System: Hair, Skin, and Nails
Function: Communication of pain, pressure, temperature Protection of body: Prevents dehydration Regulates body temperature Barrier for disease/infection Covers and holds in organs Removes waste products Barrier for sun’s UV rays

10 The Integumentary System
Epidermis: Outermost layer -Two layers: -Inner layer: living cells -Outer layer: dead cells -Contains: -Keratin- waterproofing -Melanocytes- produces pigment

11 The Integumentary System
Dermis: middle layer Contains: -Hair follicles/roots -Sweat glands -Sebaceous (oil) glands -Arrector pili muscle -Nerves -Blood Vessels

12 The Integumentary System
Hypodermis (Subcutaneous Layer): Innermost layer Contains: Adipose (fat) cells: cushion, insulation, anchors skin. Blood vessels: temp. regulation, nutrients, etc. Nerves: temp., pressure, pain

13 The Integumentary System
Hair- made of dead epidermal cells. Function: protect skin from UV rays (on head); provide insulation from cold; hairs in nose, ears, eyelashes prevent dirt and other particles from entering body. Nails- Sheets of keratinized cells Function: protects tips of fingers/toes

14 The End


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