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Chapter 32 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems

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1 Chapter 32 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems
The HUMAN BODY Chapter 32 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems

2 Chapter 32.1 Skeletal System
Objectives List the structures and functions of the skeletal system Describe the structure of a typical bone List and describe the different kinds of joints

3 SKELETAL SYSTEM Functions: Provides shape and support Allows movement
Protects tissues and organs Stores certain minerals Produces blood cells Skeletal system has 5 important functions – must know ALL 5 Shape and support – like the internal wood frame supports a house; body would collapse without a skeleton Allows movement – bones provide a system of levers on which muscles act to produce movement (levers = rigid rods that move about a fixed point) Protect tissues and organs – for example, skull protects the brain and rib cage protects the heart and lungs Store certain minerals – contain reserves of minerals, mainly calcium Produce blood cells – blood cells produced in soft marrow tissue that fills internal cavities of some bones

4 Skeleton Components Made up of approximately 206 bones
Bones held together by ligaments Bones attached to muscle by tendons Ask students to name common bones in body (repeat several times) – refer to page 923 of book: Cranium (bones of head), vertebrae, pelvis, sternum, ribs, scapula (back shoulder blade), clavicle (front) Arm: humerus, radius (thumb side), ulna (back), carpals, metacarpals, phalanges Leg: femur (longest bone in body), tibia (big), fibula (small), patella (kneecap), calcaneus (heel), tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges Use doc camera and have students label bones on worksheet Ligaments hold bone to bone eg., in your knee, the ligaments hold the bones (femur, patella, tibia, fibula) together (for example, ACL) Tendons hold muscle to bone eg. Achilles tendon attaches calf muscle to your heel bone (calcaneus)

5 Skeleton- Bones Cartilage- strong, connective tissue that supports the body; softer, more flexible than bone Ossification- process of bone formation, cartilage replaced by bone Cushions bones & Reduces friction Cartilage = strong connective tissue Skeleton of embryo made almost entirely of cartilage Ossification begins before birth (up to 7 months before birth) cartilage is gradually replaced by bone many long bones (like ones in arms and legs) have growth plates on ends growth of cartilage at ends of bones causes bones to lengthen cartilage is slowly replaced by bone during late adolescence/early adulthood, cartilage in growth plates is entirely replaced with bone and person “stops growing” Adults still have some cartilage (in tip of nose, external ears, where ribs attach to sternum – to allow rib cage to move when breathing)

6 Skeleton- Bones Bones: solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium Contains marrow: Yellow marrow- mainly made of fat cells Red marrow- produces blood cells Structure of typical bone: - surrounded by tough outer layer of connective tissue = periosteum - thick layer of compact bone – dense bone, but contains Haversian canals that contain blood vessels and nerves - inside the compact bone layer – spongy bone (not soft and spongy, but quite strong); found in ends of long bones (like femur) and middle of short flat bones - within bones are cavities that contain a soft tissue called bone marrow - yellow marrow made of fat cells - red marrow produces RBC, some WBC, and platelets Using doc camera, have students label diagram of bone

7 Skeletal Joints Joints- any place where two bones come together
Joint types: Movable Pivot, ball-and-socket, hinge, saddle Semi-movable Vertebrae Immovable Cranium, sacrum Joints allow bones to move without damaging each other Cartilage covers the surfaces of joints to protect bones as they move against each other Movable: prevent movement in one or more directions; grouped according to shapes of bones pivot joint – allow one bone to rotate around another (eg., ulna and radius of forearm) ball-and-socket – permit movement in many directions / allow most movement (eg., arm into shoulder; leg into hip) hinge – back and forth movement (eg., knee) saddle – allow one bone to slide in two directions (eg., thumb) gliding – allow two bone plates to glide against one another (eg., joints in your ankles and wrists - holding your forearm steady while your hand points upward and then waving side-to-side with your hand is an example of this joint's functioning.) Semi-movable: allow a little bit of restricted movement eg., vertebrae Immovable: allow no movement at all; bones are interlocked or fused together eg., bones of the skull and sacrum (tailbone)

8 Skeletal System Disorders
Arthritis: inflammation of joint Osteoporosis: loss of calcium in bones leads to weakening of bones Skeletal System Disorders Arthritis = inflammation of the joint rheumatoid arthritis results when immune system attacks the joints osteoarthritis results when cartilage protecting joints wears down and bones begin to rub against each other, causing inflammation Osteoporosis = loss of calcium in bones leads to weakening of the bones that can cause fractures to prevent – good nutrition, including plenty of calcium in diet, and weight bearing exercise (which helps to build up bones)

9 Check-in Review bones of body What holds bone to bone?
Ligaments What holds muscle to bone? Tendons

10 Check-in What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Shape and support, allows movement, protects tissues and organs, mineral storage, produces blood cells Process by which cartilage is replaced by bone Ossification

11 Check-in Strong connective tissue more flexible than bone
Cartilage Place where two bones come together Joint Disorder that causes inflammation of joints Arthritis

12 Check-in Dense bone containing Haversian canals Outer layer of bone
Contains fat cells Produces blood cells Adds strength w/o mass Yellow marrow Compact bone Periosteum Spongy bone Red marrow

13 Chapter 32.2 Muscular System
Objectives Describe the structure and function of the three types of muscle tissue Describe how muscles contract Describe how muscle contractions produce movement

14 MUSCULAR SYSTEM Muscles - bundles of fibers that work together to allow for movement and structure More than 40% of mass of average human body is muscle Muscles are bundles of fibers (kind of like Twizzlers)

15 Muscles- 3 Types Skeletal- Smooth- Cardiac-
Attaches to and moves bones; voluntary Smooth- Controls breathing, digestive system; involuntary Cardiac- Found only in heart; involuntary Three types of muscle tissue, each specialized for specific function within body Skeletal: Attached to and moves bones Voluntary Striated (alternating light and dark bands) Cells are large, have many nuclei, may be 1mm to 30 cm long; long and slender (often called muscle fibers) A complete skeletal muscle has muscle fibers, connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves Consciously controlled by nervous system Reacts quickly and tires quickly Smooth: Not under voluntary control Cells are spindle-shaped (fat in middle and tapered at ends), have one nucleus, and are not striated Move food through digestive system, control way blood flows through vessels, decrease size of pupils in bright light Can function w/o nervous stimulation Cardiac: Found only in heart Features of both skeletal and smooth muscle Striated, but smaller cells than skeletal Cells have 1 nucleus (sometimes 2) Usually not under direct control of CNS (connected to neighbors by gap junctions) - involuntary

16 Check-in What muscle type(s) is/are striated?
Skeletal and cardiac What muscle type moves bones? Skeletal What muscle type is found in digestive system? Smooth What muscle type(s) is/are involuntary? Smooth and cardiac

17 Muscle Action Muscles work in pairs- one contracts, the other relaxes
Biceps, Triceps Flexor Decrease angle between bones (eg. Biceps) Extensor Increase angle between bones (eg. Triceps) Individual muscles can only pull in one direction Muscles generally work in opposing pairs – when one contracts, the other relaxes biceps contract – forearm moves towards the upper arm (flexor) triceps contract – forearm moves away from upper arm (extensor) controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles (they must contract in balance to hold a tennis racket or play a violin)

18 How do muscles contract?
Nerve tissue sends message to muscle to contract/relax Electrochemical signal sent to muscle via nerve Signal causes release of Calcium ions which react with protein (myosin and actin) in muscle cells Muscles react by having their long filaments slide past each other Muscle cells get closer- they contract Muscle fibers are made up of myofibrils which are made up of filaments Thick and thin filaments make the striations (thick = myosin and thin = actin) - SHOW NEXT SLIDE Go through steps of muscle contraction Electrochemical signal sent to muscle through nerve Ca2+ ions released, which react with myosin and actin in muscle cells Muscles respond by having long filaments slide past each other head of mysin (thick fibers) binds with actin (thin) and then pulls actin toward center of sarcomere mysin releases, binds again, and pulls 4. Muscles cells get closer

19 Muscle Contraction Video Clip
Sarcomere is the unit of muscle contraction; sarcomeres are separated from each other by Z lines Muscle Contraction Video Clip

20 Check-in Type of muscle that decrease angle between bones.
Flexor Muscle contraction begins with Nerve impulse Two proteins found in skeletal muscles Actin and myosin

21 Chapter 32.3 Integumentary System
Objectives State the functions of the integumentary system Identify the structures of the integumentary system

22 Integumentary System Function:
Communication of pain, pressure, temperature Protection of body: Prevents dehydration Regulates body temperature Barrier for disease/infection Covers and holds in organs Removes waste products Barrier for sun’s UV rays Integumentary system = skin and its related structures (hair, nails, and a variety of glands) Skin is the single largest organ of the body Two main functions: Skin contains several types of sensory receptors that allow it to transmit sensations such as pain, pressure, temp to nervous system Most important function – protection of body We will learn how the skin is specialized for each of these aspects of protection Apple demonstration Cut apple in half Cover one half tightly with plastic wrap and leave the other unwrapped and open to environment What do you think will happen to each during the period? At end – show both pieces (How are they different?) What role do you think the skin of the apple plays? How is the skin of an apple like human skin?

23 Layers of the Skin Epidermis: outermost layer -Two layers: -Contains:
-Inner layer: living cells -Outer layer: dead cells -Contains: -Keratin (waterproofing) -Melanocytes (produces pigment) Outer layer of skin Has two layers: outer layer of dead cells and inner layer of living cells Inner layer undergoes rapid cellular division (creating new cells) that push older cells upward towards surface as cells move upward, they begin making keratin (tough fibrous protein) that serves as waterproofing  prevent dehydration cells also flatten out and die Outer layer forms tough, flexible, waterproof covering on surface of skin shed or washed away at surprising rate (every 4-6 weeks the outer layer is replaced) Epidermis also contains melanocytes that produce the dark-brown pigment melanin this is what gives you a tan when you are in the sun protects skin from damage by absorbing ultraviolet light from sun too much sun results in burn and bad burns can lead to skin cancer (abnormal growth of skin cells) protect yourself by wearing hat, sunglasses, protective clothing, sunscreen of at least SPF 15 when outside Epidermis does NOT have any blood vessels – slight scratch not produce bleeding

24 Layers of Skin Dermis: middle layer Contains: -Hair follicles/roots
Irregular ridges between dermis and epidermis form fingerprints Contains: -Hair follicles/roots -Sweat glands -Sebaceous (oil) glands -Arrector pili muscle -Nerves -Blood Vessels Lies beneath the epidermis Wavy ridges between the dermis and epidermis are what cause fingerprints Two major kinds of glands Sweat glands – when your body gets too hot, sweat glands produce sweat (water, salts, and other compounds); when sweat evaporates, it takes heat from your body; sweat also gets rid of wastes from blood along with water (excretory fcn) Sebaceous (oil) glands – produce oily secretion called sebum which spreads out on surface of skin and helps keep epidermis and hair flexible and waterproof ; also acidic and can kill bacteria on surface of skin Skin interacts with other body systems to maintain homeostasis by helping to regulate body temperature on cold days, blood vessels narrow to help limit heat loss and conserve heat on hot days, blood vessels widen to bring heat from body’s core to skin and increase heat loss Also when cold, arrector pili muscle contracts, pulling the hair follicle upright and ejecting oil to help prevent evaporation (maintain heat); this is what goose bumps are

25 Layers of Skin Hypodermis (Subcutaneous Layer): Innermost layer
Contains: Adipose (fat) cells: cushion, insulation, anchors skin, etc. Blood vessels: temp. regulation, nutrients, etc. Nerves: temp., pressure, pain This layer – called hypodermis or subcutaneous layer – contains fat cells and loose connective tissue to help insulate the body Pause here and have students label their skin diagram – use transparency to check for correctness of labeling

26 An inside look at the skin!

27 Derivatives of Skin Hair: Nails: Dead epidermal cells
Forms from bulb/root Nails: Sheets of keratinized cells Forms from nail bed Basic structure of hair and nails is keratin (tough fibrous protein that also forms outer skin layer) Hair is made of dead epidermal cells produced by cells at the base of the hair follicles (tubelike pockets of epidermal cells that extend into the dermis) hair is actually large column of cells that have filled with keratin and died sebaceous glands produce oils to help maintain the condition of each hair function of hair: protect skin from UV rays (on head); provide insulation from cold; hairs in nose, ears, eyelashes prevent dirt and other particles from entering body Nails grow from an area of rapidly dividing cells known as the nail root (near tips of fingers and toes) during division, cells of nail root fill with keratin and produce tough, platelike nail that covers and protects tips of fingers/toes nails grow avg. of 3 mm per month (fingernails grow faster than toenails)

28 Fingerprints Fingerprint Identification
Read introduction and show pictures of different types of fingerprint patterns Fingerprints increase the sensory perception of fingertips and help in gripping rough surfaces as well as smooth wet surfaces Have students complete the fingerprint activity

29 Check-in Describe the two layers of the epidermis
Inner layer of living cells and Outer layer of dead cells Cell that produces pigment (found in epidermis) Melanocyte Protein that waterproofs skin and forms hair and nails Keratin

30 Check-in Describe what the structures of the dermis do when you are hot. Sweat glands produce sweat Blood vessels widen to bring more heat to surface of skin This part of the hypodermis cushions, insulates and helps to anchor skin Adipose cells

31 Check-in Why do we have hair?
Protect head from UV rays, insulation, prevent dirt from entering body Communicate pain, pressure, temperature to brain Nerves

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