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The HUMAN BODY Chapter 32 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "The HUMAN BODY Chapter 32 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 The HUMAN BODY Chapter 32 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems

2 Chapter 32.1 Skeletal System Objectives –List the structures and functions of the skeletal system –Describe the structure of a typical bone –List and describe the different kinds of joints

3 SKELETAL SYSTEM Functions: –Provides shape and support –Allows movement –Protects tissues and organs –Stores certain minerals –Produces blood cells

4 Skeleton Components Made up of approximately 206 bones Bones held together by ligaments Bones attached to muscle by tendons

5 Skeleton- Bones Cartilage- strong, connective tissue that supports the body; softer, more flexible than bone –Ossification- process of bone formation, cartilage replaced by bone –Cushions bones & Reduces friction

6 Skeleton- Bones Bones: solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium –Contains marrow: Yellow marrow- mainly made of fat cells Red marrow- produces blood cells

7 Skeletal Joints Joints- any place where two bones come together Joint types: –Movable Pivot, ball-and-socket, hinge, saddle –Semi-movable Vertebrae –Immovable Cranium, sacrum

8 Skeletal System Disorders Arthritis: inflammation of joint Osteoporosis: loss of calcium in bones leads to weakening of bones

9 Check-in Review bones of body What holds bone to bone? –Ligaments What holds muscle to bone? –Tendons

10 Check-in What are the functions of the skeletal system? –Shape and support, allows movement, protects tissues and organs, mineral storage, produces blood cells Process by which cartilage is replaced by bone –Ossification

11 Check-in Strong connective tissue more flexible than bone –Cartilage Place where two bones come together –Joint Disorder that causes inflammation of joints –Arthritis

12 Check-in Dense bone containing Haversian canals Outer layer of bone Contains fat cells Produces blood cells Adds strength w/o mass Yellow marrow Compact bone Periosteum Spongy bone Red marrow

13 Chapter 32.2 Muscular System Objectives –Describe the structure and function of the three types of muscle tissue –Describe how muscles contract –Describe how muscle contractions produce movement

14 MUSCULAR SYSTEM Muscles - bundles of fibers that work together to allow for movement and structure

15 Muscles- 3 Types Skeletal- –Attaches to and moves bones; voluntary Smooth- –Controls breathing, digestive system; involuntary Cardiac- –Found only in heart; involuntary

16 Check-in What muscle type(s) is/are striated? –Skeletal and cardiac What muscle type moves bones? –Skeletal What muscle type is found in digestive system? –Smooth What muscle type(s) is/are involuntary? –Smooth and cardiac

17 Muscle Action Muscles work in pairs- one contracts, the other relaxes –Biceps, Triceps Flexor –Decrease angle between bones (eg. Biceps) Extensor –Increase angle between bones (eg. Triceps)

18 How do muscles contract? Nerve tissue sends message to muscle to contract/relax –Electrochemical signal sent to muscle via nerve –Signal causes release of Calcium ions which react with protein (myosin and actin) in muscle cells –Muscles react by having their long filaments slide past each other –Muscle cells get closer- they contract

19 Muscle Contraction Video Clip

20 Check-in Type of muscle that decrease angle between bones. –Flexor Muscle contraction begins with –Nerve impulse Two proteins found in skeletal muscles –Actin and myosin

21 Chapter 32.3 Integumentary System Objectives –State the functions of the integumentary system –Identify the structures of the integumentary system

22 Integumentary System Function: –Communication of pain, pressure, temperature –Protection of body: Prevents dehydration Regulates body temperature Barrier for disease/infection Covers and holds in organs Removes waste products Barrier for sun’s UV rays

23 Layers of the Skin Epidermis: outermost layer - Two layers: -Inner layer: living cells -Outer layer: dead cells - Contains : -Keratin (waterproofing) -Melanocytes (produces pigment)

24 Layers of Skin Dermis: middle layer –Irregular ridges between dermis and epidermis form fingerprints Contains: -Hair follicles/roots -Sweat glands -Sebaceous (oil) glands -Arrector pili muscle -Nerves -Blood Vessels

25 Layers of Skin Hypodermis (Subcutaneous Layer): Innermost layer –Contains: Adipose (fat) cells: cushion, insulation, anchors skin, etc. Blood vessels: temp. regulation, nutrients, etc. Nerves: temp., pressure, pain

26 An inside look at the skin!

27 Derivatives of Skin Hair: –Dead epidermal cells –Forms from bulb/root Nails: –Sheets of keratinized cells –Forms from nail bed

28 Fingerprints Fingerprint Identification

29 Check-in Describe the two layers of the epidermis –Inner layer of living cells and –Outer layer of dead cells Cell that produces pigment (found in epidermis) –Melanocyte Protein that waterproofs skin and forms hair and nails –Keratin

30 Check-in Describe what the structures of the dermis do when you are hot. –Sweat glands produce sweat –Blood vessels widen to bring more heat to surface of skin This part of the hypodermis cushions, insulates and helps to anchor skin –Adipose cells

31 Check-in Why do we have hair? –Protect head from UV rays, insulation, prevent dirt from entering body Communicate pain, pressure, temperature to brain –Nerves


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