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End Show Slide 1 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 The Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 The Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 The Skeletal System

2 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 2 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Skeleton All organisms need structural support. Unicellular organisms have a cytoskeleton. Multicellular animals have either an exoskeleton (arthropods) or an endoskeleton (vertebrates).

3 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 3 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Skeleton The human skeleton is composed of bone. Bones and other connective tissues, such as cartilage and ligaments, form the skeletal system.

4 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 4 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Skeleton The skeleton: supports the body. protects internal organs. provides for movement. stores mineral reserves. provides a site for blood cell formation.

5 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 5 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones What is the structure of a typical bone?

6 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 6 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones Bones are a solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts.

7 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 7 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones Bone marrow Periosteum Spongy bone Compact bone Haversian canal Compact bone Spongy bone Periosteum Osteocyte Artery Vein

8 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 8 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones The bone is surrounded by a tough layer of connective tissue. Blood vessels carry oxygen and nutrients to the bone. Beneath the connective tissue is a thick layer of compact bone. Running through compact bone is a network of tubes that contain blood vessels and nerves.

9 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 9 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones Spongy bone is found inside the outer layer of compact bone. Spongy bone is also found in the ends of long bones and in the middle of short, flat bones. Spongy bone adds strength without adding mass.

10 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 10 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones 3 kinds of bone cells: Osteocytes are mature bone cells. Osteoclasts break down bone. Osteoblasts produce bone.

11 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 11 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Bones Bone marrow is a soft tissue inside the cavities within bones. There are two types of bone marrow: Yellow marrow is made up of fat cells. Red marrow produces red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells, and platelets.

12 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 12 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Development of Bones The skeleton of an embryo is composed of cartilage. Cartilage is a strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone. Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called ossification.

13 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 13 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Development of Bones Many long bones have growth plates at either end. By early adulthood, cartilage in the growth plates is replaced by bone, the bones become ossified, and growth stops.

14 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 14 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of Joints A place where one bone attaches to another bone is called a joint. Joints permit bones to move without damaging each other.

15 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 15 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of Joints Depending on its type of movement, a joint is classified as *immovable *slightly movable * freely movable.

16 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 16 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of Joints Immovable Joints Immovable joints allow no movement. Places where bones in the skull meet are examples of immovable joints.

17 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 17 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of Joints Slightly Movable Joints Slightly movable joints permit a small amount of restricted movement. Slightly movable joints are found in the joints between adjacent vertebrae.

18 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 18 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Types of Joints Freely Movable Joints Freely movable joints permit movement in one or more directions. Four common freely movable joints are: ball-and-socket joints hinge joints pivot joints saddle joints

19 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 19 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Joints Connective tissue called ligaments hold bones together in joints. Synovial fluid forms a thin lubricating film over the surface of the joint, which enables the bones to slide past each other more smoothly.

20 End Show 36–1 The Skeletal System Slide 20 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Skeletal System Disorders Excessive strain on a joint may produce inflammation, in which excess fluid causes swelling, pain, heat, and redness. Osteoporosis is a skeletal system disorder caused by a loss of calcium in the bone.

21 End Show Slide 21 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 Red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells, and platelets are produced by a.red marrow. b.cartilage. c.yellow marrow. d.osteocytes.

22 End Show Slide 22 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 Mature bone cells are called a.periosteum. b.osteocytes. c.bone marrow. d.Haversian canals.

23 End Show Slide 23 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 In freely movable joints, what covers the surfaces where the two bones come together? a.ligaments b.cartilage c.bursae d.tendons

24 End Show Slide 24 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 During ossification, cartilage is replaced by a.bone. b.ligament. c.marrow. d.tendon.

25 End Show Slide 25 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 36–1 The shoulder joint is an example of a a.ball-and-socket joint. b.hinge joint. c.pivot joint. d.saddle joint.


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