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Chapter 36 Skeletal System. Skeleton Supports the body Protects internal organs Provides for movement Stores mineral reserves Provides site for blood.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 36 Skeletal System. Skeleton Supports the body Protects internal organs Provides for movement Stores mineral reserves Provides site for blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 36 Skeletal System

2 Skeleton Supports the body Protects internal organs Provides for movement Stores mineral reserves Provides site for blood cell formation

3 206 bones in the adult human body Axial- supports central axis –Skull, vertebral column and rib cage Appendicular –Arms, legs, pelvis and shoulder area

4 Structure of bones Network of living cells and protein fibers surrounded by deposits of calcium salts Periosteum- tough connective tissue layer surrounding bone Compact bone- dense outer bone with Haversian canals that contain blood vessels and nerves Spongy bone- found closer to center than compact bones and the ends of long bones and middle of short, flat bones

5 Development of Bones Early in development the structure is cartilage- a protein fiber network of collagen and elastin with no blood vessels Ossification- process of bone replacing cartilage

6 Osteoclasts- break down bone Osteoblasts- produce new bone  these both are found lining Haversian canals Bone Marrow- soft tissue –Yellow- made up of fat cells –Red- produces red blood cells, some white blood cells and cell fragments called platelets

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8 Types of Joints Joint- where one bone attaches to another bone Immovable Joints –Interlocked and held together by connective tissue or fused ex) skull Slightly Movable Joints –Allow small restricted movements ex) tibia/fibula Freely Movable Joints –Move in one or more directions

9 Freely Movable Joints Ball and socket- widest range of motion –Ex) shoulder Hinge- back and forth motion –Ex) knee Pivot- one bone to rotate around another –Ex) elbow Saddle- one bone to slide in 2 directions –Ex) finger

10 More Joint Information Ligaments- bone to bone Tendons- bone to muscles Synovial fluid- forms a thin film on cartilage in joint capsule to lubricate movement Bursae- sacs of synovial fluid- reduce friction and act as a shock absorber

11 36-2 Muscular System 3 types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac Skeletal –Attached to bones –Responsible for voluntary movements –Also called striated muscle Smooth –Not under voluntary control –Found in hollow structures like the stomach, blood vessels and intestines –Function without nervous stimulation

12 Cardiac –Found in the heart –Shares characteristics of both skeletal and smooth muscle –May have two nuclei in the cells –Usually not under the direct control of the CNS

13 Muscle Contraction Myosin-protein found in the thick filaments of the muscle cells Actin- protein found in the thin filaments These filaments are arranged into a muscle fiber called a sarcomere The ends of the sarcomeres are called Z lines

14 36-3 Integumentary System Means “to cover” Includes skin, hair, nails, and glands Function: serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helping to regulate body temp, remove waste products from the body and provide protection against UV rays from the sun

15 Skin –Epidermis-outer layer of skin –Dermis –Subcutaneous layer of fat and loose connective tissue that help insulate

16 Epidermis-outer layer of skin –Outer layer- made up of flat, dead cells Begin making keratin (a tough, fibrous protein) –Inner layer is make up of living cells Undergo rapid cell division –Melanocytes Produce melanin- a dark brown pigment that protects the skin from damage caused by UV rays

17 Dermis –Contains collagen fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, glands, sensory receptors, smooth muscles and hair follicles –Regulates body temperature –Two types of glands: sweat and sebaceous


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