Presentation on theme: "Objectives 32.1 The Skeletal System"— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives 32.1 The Skeletal System -List the structures and functions of the skeletal system.-Describe the structure of a typical bone.-List the different kinds of joints and describe the range of motion of each.
2The SkeletonThe skeleton supports the body, protects internal organs, assists movement, stores minerals and is a site of blood cell formation.There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton.
32 divisions of the Skeletal System include: Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton.
4Axial SkeletonThe axial skeleton consists of the skull, the vertebral column and the rib cage.
5Appendicular Skeleton The bones of the arms and legs, pelvic and shoulder girdle form the appendicular skeleton.
6BonesMost of the mass of bone is mineral salts—mainly calcium and phosphorus.However, bones are living tissue.
7Structure of Bones The bone is surrounded by a tough layer of connective tissue called periosteum.
8Structure of BonesBeneath the periosteum is a thick layer of compact bone.
9Structure of BonesNerves and blood vessels run through compact bone in channels called Haversian canals.
10Structure of BonesA less dense tissue known as spongy bone may be found under the outer layer of compact bone.
11Bone MarrowThere are two types of bone marrow yellow marrow and red marrow.1. Yellow Marrow – fat storage2. Red Marrow – blood cell formation
12Development of BonesThe skeleton of a human embryo is composed almost entirely of a type of connective tissue called cartilage.Cartilage is gradually replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called ossification.
13Development of Bones Bone tissue forms using cells called osteoblasts. Mature bone contains osteocytes, which help to maintain and strengthen the bone tissue.
14JointsA place where one or more bones meet another bone is called a joint.
15Types of JointsDepending on its range of movement, a joint is classified as immovable, slightly movable or freely movable.Immovable joints allow no movement.Slightly movable joints permit a small amount of movement.Freely movable joints permit movement in two or more directions.
16LigamentsBones are held together at a joint by ligaments.