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Unit 5: Anatomy, Physiology and Absorption of Nutrients

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1 Unit 5: Anatomy, Physiology and Absorption of Nutrients
Skeletal System Animal Science I Unit 5: Anatomy, Physiology and Absorption of Nutrients

2 Objectives Name, locate and describe the functions of the parts of the skeletal systems of animals.

3 Components of the Skeleton
Bones Cartilage Teeth Joints Fig 5-1, 5-2 See p. 105 Major Differences Between Mammal and Avian Skeletal Systems Quiz over beef skeleton on January 14

4 Cartilage Tough connective tissue that is flexible and elastic
Forms the early skeletal structure of the embryo in vertebrate animals As development occurs it is replaced by bone Also found in Joints Trachea Nose Larynx External ear In the form of disc in the vertebral column

5 Bone Composition Calcium compounds Ossein
Small amounts of other minerals


7 Bone Growth & Development
Start out as cartilage Transformation is carried out by specialized cells that break down the cartilage and replace it with bone cells called osteocytes Flat bones of the skull develop from membranes By birth most of the cartilage has been replaced by bone Secondary bone development and growth occur as the animal matures

8 Bone Structure Contain blood, lymph vessels and nerve fibers
Grow and repair themselves if damaged Some have hollow centers that are filled with marrow Type of marrow found is a function of age

9 Bone Marrow Red Marrow Yellow, White, Gelatinous Forms blood cells
May only be found in animals with short life spans Yellow, White, Gelatinous Tend only to form in animals with life spans greater than 10 years

10 Bone Marrow Red Bone Marrow

11 Functions of the Skeletal System
Form Protection Support Strength With muscles attached act as the levers to allow movement Store minerals Bone marrow produces blood cells

12 Types of Skeletal Systems
Rigid Hydraulic Able to move because muscles are attached Two types Endoskeleton-Vertebrate animals Exoskeleton-insects, crustaceans Able to move by the application of force to a fluid confined in a small space and surrounded by muscle tissue Worms, Octopus and Starfish

13 Kinds of Bones Cancellous Compact Spongy
Generally found in the ends of long bones Composed of Haversian systems and usually found on the outside of bones and surrounding marrow Composed of cylindrical or tubular structures of hard, inorganic material arranged in concentric layers. In the center there is the Haversian canal through which blood vessels and nerves pass Not found in small mammals or birds Fig 5-3

14 Bone Shape X Long Short Flat Irregular Table 5-1

15 Parts of the Skeletal System
Axial Skull Vertebral column Rib cage Pectoral limb Front legs Pelvic limb Hind legs

16 Joints Classifications are based on the structure of the joint and the movement it is capable of

17 Synarthroses (fibrous) Joints
Joined by fibrous and in some cases cartilage tissue Generally do not permit movement Example: joints of the skull

18 Amphiarthroses (Cartiligionous) Joints
Consists of discs of fibrous cartilage Separate and cushion the vertebrae Allow limited movement

19 Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints
Allow free movement Have a fluid filled cavity Surrounded by ligaments that hold the joint together Synovial fluid membrane found inside the ligaments lubricates the joint Classifications Ball and socket Gliding Pivot Hinge

20 Summary Mammal skeletal system is composed of bone, cartilage, teeth and joints Cartilage forms the early skeletal structure of the embryo Bones are made up calcium compounds, ossein and small amounts of other minerals As bones grow the cartilage that makes up the early skeletal structure is replaced with bone cells called osteocytes Bones contain blood, lymph vessels and nerve fibers Some bones have hollow centers that contain marrow

21 Summary Marrow may be red, yellow, white or gelatinous
The skeletal system provides form, protection, support and strength Two types of skeletal structures-rigid and hydraulic Two types of bones-cancellous and compact 4 shapes of bones-long, short, flat and irregular Skeleton is broken down into 3 parts-axial, pectoral limb, pelvic limb Joints are classified based on their structure and type of movement

22 Assignment Discussion Questions 1-5 p.128

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