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Integration & Control: The Endocrine System

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2 Integration & Control: The Endocrine System
Chapter 36 Integration & Control: The Endocrine System

3 Endocrine System Works w/ nervous system to control all functions of the body Endocrine glands Ductless Hormones Pineal, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, etc. Exocrine glands Ducts Non-hormones Salivary, sebaceous, sweat

4 Endocrine System Hormones Chemical signals Carried in bloodstream
Affect cells away from gland Homeostatic

5 Hormones Positive feedback Negative feedback
Increase in hormone stimulates further secretion Uterine contractions stimulate oxytocin Negative feedback Increase in hormone inhibits further secretion Thyroid Stimulating Hormone produces T3/T4

6 Hormones Peptide hormones Water soluble Mostly protein
Attach to cell membrane Trigger secondary messenger within cell Epinephrine, oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), etc.

7 Hormones Steroid hormones Water insoluble Cholesterol-based
Cross into cell Bind to receptors in cytoplasm or nucleus Estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, etc.

8 Pituitary Gland “Master Gland”
Associated with & directed by hypothalamus Posterior & Anterior lobes

9 Pituitary Gland Posterior Lobe Stores secretions from hypothalamus
Oxytocin Uterine contractions Milk “let down” ADH Conserves water Kidney tubules reabsorb water

10 Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe Prolactin Breast development
Stimulates & sustains milk production

11 Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe Growth Hormone (GH)
Stimulates body cells to grow & divide Mostly young bones & muscles Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Thyroid gland growth Secretion of thyroid hormones Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Adrenal gland growth Secretion of cortisol from adrenal gland

12 Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe Luteinizing Hormones
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulates ovulaton Stimulates estrogen secretion Stimulates progesterone secretion (females) Stimulates egg production (females) Stimulates testosterone secretion (males) Stimulates sperm production (males)

13 Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Stimulates melanocytes in skin Increases during human pregnancy Increases in amphibians in dark location

14 Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe Endorphins Natural pain-killers
Sense of well-being Strenuous exercise, excitement, orgasm “Runner’s High”


16 Thyroid Gland Regulates speed of all basic cellular processes
Energy burning Protein synthesis Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Controls metabolism Affects growth Calcitonin Lowers blood calcium levels Increases deposit of calcium in bones

17 Parathyroid Gland Calcium metabolism Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Breaks down bone to release calcium Increases intestinal absorption Increases kidney retention

18 Adrenal Gland Cortex Produces corticosteroids Mineralocorticoids
Aldosterone—controls electrolytes through kidneys Glucocorticoids Cortisol—“stress hormone” Increases blood pressure & blood glucose Suppresses immune system Andgrogens Testosterone Cause masculine traits

19 Adrenal Gland Medulla Hormones released under stress
Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar Hormones released under stress Increases sympathetic effects Controlled by sympathetic nervous system Norepinephrine 20% of medullary hormones Epinephrine Maintains blood pressure 80% of medullary hormones

20 Thymus Gland Large in infant Increases until puberty
Shrinks until adulthood Thymosin Normal development of immune system

21 Pineal Gland Melatonin Regulates biological clock
Regulates sleep cycle “Lower” vertebrates, cells resemble photoreceptor cells of eye May be triggered by light

22 Pancreas Endocrine & exocrine Digestive enzymes Glucagon Insulin
Breaks down glycogen to glucose Frees stored glycogen in liver Insulin Lowers blood glucose Increases uptake of glucose into body cells

23 Ovaries Estrogen Progesterone Female sexual characteristics
Sperm maturation & libido in males Progesterone Prepares uterus for egg implantation Regulates menstrual cycle

24 Testes Testosterone Male sexual characteristics Sexual behaviors
“Male” behaviors Aggression Territoriality

25 Other organs Kidneys Skin Skeletal muscle Adipose (fat)
Erythropoietin—stimulates red blood cell production Skin Calcidiol—inactive form of vitamin D Skeletal muscle Thrombopoietin—stimulates platelet formation Adipose (fat) Leptin—decrease appetite, increase metabolism

26 Hormonal Imbalances Hypersecretion of GH Gigantism—in children
Acromegaly—in adults

27 Hormonal Imbalances Hyposecretion of GH
Pituitary dwarfism—children, slow bone growth

28 Hormonal Imbalances Hypothyroidism Goiter Fatigue
Thin, brittle hair & nails Weight gain Poor muscle tone Goiter Inflammation of thyroid gland Can be due to iodine deficiency

29 Hormonal Imbalances Hyperthyroidism Weight loss Ravenous appetite
Irritability, anxiety Fatigue Hyperactivity Graves’ disease Protrusion of eyes Edema (fluid accumulation) Thickening of skin Goiter

30 Hormonal Imbalances Diabetes insipidus Diabetes mellitus
Deficiency of ADH Increased urine output Chronic dehydration risk Diabetes mellitus Deficiency of insulin High blood glucose levels Type I—usually before age 20, pancreas cells stop producing, autoimmune Type II—usually after age 40, insulin levels normal, cells don’t respond to it

31 Hormonal Imbalance Addison’s disease Cushing’s disease
Adrenal gland produces insufficient glucocorticoids Low blood pressure Darkening of skin Vomiting, diarrhea Mood, personality changes Cushing’s disease Overproduction of glucocorticoids Weight gain Thin skin, often stretched Muscle weakness Hirsuitism (horses & humans) Hyperglycemia

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