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Endocrine System 1. Made up of glands that produce and

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Presentation on theme: "Endocrine System 1. Made up of glands that produce and"— Presentation transcript:

1 Endocrine System 1. Made up of glands that produce and
secrete hormones (chemical messengers) 2. Regulation of growth, metabolism, sexual development 3. Responses to stress and injury 4. Internal balance of body systems (homeostasis)

2 Major Glands 1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary 3. Thyroid 4. Parathyroid
5. Adrenals 6. Pineal Body 7. Reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) 8. Pancreas

3 *HORMONES are chemical messengers that act on TARGET CELLS
Exocrine Glands – secrete outside the body through ducts and tubes (sweat)

4 Control of Hormonal Secretions
Hypothalamus (releasing hormone)Pituitary (stimulating hormone)  Target Gland (secretes hormone) * hormone levels rise and releasing hormone is shut down (negative feedback)

5 Pituitary Gland “Master gland”of the body*- because of its great influence on the body organs Located at the base of the brain Anterior and posterior lobes

6 Pituitary Gland Disorders
Acromegaly Giantism Diabetes insipidus Dwarfism

7 Thyroid Gland Regulates body’s metabolism Located in neck
Requires iodine from food intake Thyroid Hormones: Thyroxin (T4) & Tri-iodothyronine (T3) both increase the rate at which cells release energy from carbohydrates Calcitonin – regulates the blood concentration of calcium

8 Thyroid Disorders Goiter – too little iodine in diet causes thyroid
to swell Hypothyroidism (cretinism in infants) stunted growth, mental retardation, sluggishness, weight gain in adults Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) restlessness, weight loss, anxiety; can cause Goiter (enlarged thyroid)

9 Parathyroid Glands Attached to thyroid glands
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Regulate amount of calcium in the blood - takes calcium from the bones to make it available in the blood Hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism

10 Adrenal Glands Located above the kidneys
Each adrenal gland is actually two endocrine organs Cortex-outer portion Medulla-the inner portion Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone – a mineral corticoid, helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete potassium, maintaining blood pressure Cortisol – glucocortoid, keeps blood glucose levels stable Adrenal Sex Hormones - androgens (male) and estrogens (female) Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla: Epinephrine & Norepinephrine – increased heart rate, breathing rate, elevated blood pressure (fight or flight, response to stress)

11 Adrenal Cortex Disorder
Addison’s disease (hyposecretion) – decreased blood sodium, dehydration, low blood pressure, increased skin pigmentation Cushing’s syndrome (hypersecretion of cortisol) – blood glucose remains high, retains too much sodium, puffy skin, masculinizing effects in women -

12 Pancreas Located behind the stomach-that helps the body to maintain healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels. Contains islands of cells called the Islets of Langerhans which secrete glucagon and insulin Glucagon – stimulates the liver to break down glycogen, raises blood sugar concentration Insulin – decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the uptake of glucose by cells Both an exocrine and endocrine gland

13 Pancreas Disorders Diabetes Mellitus – results from an insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises (hyperglycemia) and excess is excreted in the urine. Type I – insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile onset diabetes, often caused by inherited immune disorder that destroys pancreatic cells Type II – mature onset diabetes (usually after the age of 40), often individuals are overweight, can be controlled with diet and exercise Hypoglycemia – low blood sugar, can be caused by too much insulin

14 Sex Glands Ovaries: female sex glands, located in the pelvis, secrete hormones that regulate menstruation and secondary sexual characteristics Testes: male sex glands, located in the scrotal sac, produce hormones that regulate secondary sexual characteristics – testosterone, progesterone, estrogen

15 Thymus Located in the upper part of chest Active in early life
Atrophies (wastes away) during puberty Secretes thymosins, important to immune function

16 Pineal Body Located in the brain between the cerebral hemispheres,
Secretes melatonin-- important for maintaining Circadian rhythms (light and dark activity)

17 Placenta Temporary endocrine gland produced during pregnancy
Functions- reparatory, excretory, and nutrition-delivery systems for the fetus, produces hormones to maintain the pregnancy and delivery of baby Expelled after the birth of the child

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