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“I am a brain, Watson. The rest of me is a mere appendix.” ― Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone.

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Presentation on theme: "“I am a brain, Watson. The rest of me is a mere appendix.” ― Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone."— Presentation transcript:

1 “I am a brain, Watson. The rest of me is a mere appendix.” ― Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone

2 NEUROANATOMY The Form of the Brain

3 Directional terms posterior medial lateral superior inferior anterior

4 Skin Periosteum = leathery covering of cranial bones Cranium = bone w/fixed joints Meninges Protecting The Brain

5 Dura mater = tough fibrous tissue covering the brain. Contains blood vessels that nourish the brain. Holds in the cerebral-spinal fluid (CSF) Arachnoid Space Pia mater Meninges

6 Sub- v. Epidural Hematomas Epidural = Inflammation between dura and skull Subdural = between arachnoid space and dura

7 Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF) CSF = plasma ultrafiltrate that bathes and protects the CNS. Produced by the choroid plexus (tissue in the lateral ventricles & 4th ventricle) Hydrocephalus = Inflammation resulting from obstruction of the aqueduct connecting the third & fourth ventricles

8 Major Regions of the Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Spinal cord

9 Cerebral Cortex The outer layer of grey matter of the cerebrum Grey matter consists of soma (cell bodies)and unmyelinated axons White matter consists of myelinated axons Cerebral Cortex

10 Axons Soma

11 Cerebral Topography Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain Cingulate Gyrus – Just above the corpus callossum Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing large regions/lobes of the brain Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes

12 Longitudinal Fissure Transverse Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Central Sulcus Specific Sulci/Fissures:

13 Cerebral Lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital

14 Frontal Lobe The frontal lobe is located deep to the frontal bone. Functions/actions: Memory formation Emotions Decision Making/Reasoning Personality Generally, the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body

15 Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory Bulb Modified from: Frontal Lobe – Cortical Regions

16 Controls movements of the body Betz cells  alpha motor neurons (spinal cord)  muscle fibers The motor cortex contains a rough “map” of the body, with controls for the toes (top) to the mouth (bottom) in overlapping regions Primary Motor Cortex

17 Motor Homunculus Proportional model of organs to density of neural tissue devoted to said muscle/structure

18 Broca’s v. Wernicke’s Area BROCA =Located on the right frontal lobe Controls facial neurons, speech, and language comprehension WERNICKE = located on left temporal lobe Controls content of speech and language development

19 Orbitofrontal Cortex One of the least explored and understood regions of the cerebral cortex Located just above the orbits (eye sockets), in the frontal lobe Involved in adaptive learning and “personality” of an individual

20 Phineas Gage

21 Olfactory Bulb The most rostral (forward) part of the brain in most vertebrates, but is on the inferior side of the brain in humans Olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal cavity receive the smells, and transmit them to the brain

22 Parietal Lobe Where? The parietal lobe of the brain is located deep to the parietal bone of the skull What Functions? Sensory Integration Proprioception: aware- ness of body/body parts in space and in relation to each other)

23 Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus Primary Gustatory Cortex Somatosensory Association Cortex Modified from: Parietal Lobe – Cortical Regions

24 Somatosensory Cortex Processing of tactile, temperature, nociceptive (pain), and proprioceptive (spatial) information Neurons are also organized according to the type of sensation to which they respond (i.e. pressure, temperature, pain)

25 Somatosensory Homunculus This model shows what a man's body would look like if each part grew in proportion to the area of the cortex of the brain concerned with its sensory perception

26 Parietal Lobe – Other Cortical Regions Somatosensory Association Cortex Assists with integration/interpretation of sensations relative to body position and orientation in space (kinesthetic awareness) and hand-eye coordination Primary Gustatory Cortex Primary site of interpretation of gustation/taste

27 Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe is located deep to the occipital bone of the skull Functions: Processing, integration, interpretation of vision and visual stimuli

28 Primary Visual Cortex Visual Association Area Modified from: Occipital Lobe – Cortical Regions

29 Primary Visual Cortex Primary area of brain responsible for sight. Receives information via the optic nerve Visual Association Area Interprets information acquired through the primary visual cortex

30 Temporal Lobe The temporal lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the temporal bones of the skull Functions: Hearing Organization/ comprehension of language Information retrieval (memory and memory retrieval)

31 Primary Auditory Cortex Wernike’s Area Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) Conducted from Olfactory Bulb Modified from: Temporal Lobe- Cortical Regions

32 Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions Primary Auditory Cortex Responsible for hearing Primary Olfactory Cortex Interprets the sense of smell once it reaches the cortex via the olfactory bulbs Wernicke’s Area Located on the left temporal lobe Language comprehension

33 Cerebellum “Little brain”, located inferior to the cerebrum Functions: Motor control – doesn’t originate movement (i.e. primary motor cortex) but contributes to motor programs Attention & language (?) Regulating fear and pleasure responses (?) Composed of highly regularly arranged Purkinje cells (large neurons with many dendritic spines) and Granule cells (small neurons)

34 Brainstem The posterior region of the brain Continuous tissue with the spinal column All information relayed between the body and brain must pass through the brainstem

35 Segments of Brainstem The brainstem is composed of three segments: Medulla oblongata Pons Midbrain

36 Medulla Oblongata Lower half of the brainstem Contains autonomic centers re: Cardiac function Respiratory function Vomiting Vasomotor

37 Pons Relay action potentials from the forebrain to the cerebellum Deals primarily with: Sleep Respiration Swallowing Bladder control Hearing Posture Equilibrium Taste Eye movement Facial expressions Facial sensation

38 Midbrain Located superior to the pons Associated with: Vision Hearing Motor Control Sleep/awake Arousal (alertness) Temperature regulation

39 Limbic System Associated with higher order behaviors Hippocampus: corticosteroid production, spatial relations; long term memory Amygdala: reward, fear, mating, response to stress Limbic cortex: judgment, insight, motivation, mood, Fornix: relay signals from hippocampus to hypothalamus


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