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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS consists of brain and spinal cord Cephalization –Evolutionary development of rostral (anterior)

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS consists of brain and spinal cord Cephalization –Evolutionary development of rostral (anterior)"— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS consists of brain and spinal cord Cephalization –Evolutionary development of rostral (anterior) portion of CNS –Increased number of neurons in head –Highest level reached in human brain

2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Regions and Organization Adult brain regions 1.Cerebral hemispheres 2.Diencephalon 3.Brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla) 4.Cerebellum

3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.2c Brain development. Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Cerebellum Brain stem Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Birth: Shows adult pattern of structures and convolutions.

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Regions and Organization of the CNS Spinal cord –Central cavity surrounded by gray matter –External white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts

5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Regions and Organization of the CNS Brain –Similar pattern –Additional areas of gray matter in brain –Cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum Outer gray matter called cortex –Cortex disappears in brain stem Scattered gray matter nuclei amid white matter

6 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventricles of the Brain Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Connected to one another and to central canal of spinal cord –Lateral ventricles  third ventricle via interventricular foramen –Third ventricle  fourth ventricle via cerebral aqueduct

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Ventricles of the Brain Paired, C-shaped lateral ventricles in cerebral hemispheres –Separated anteriorly by septum pellucidum Third ventricle in diencephalon Fourth ventricle in hindbrain –Three openings: paired lateral apertures in side walls; median aperture in roof Connect ventricles to subarachnoid space

8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.3 Ventricles of the brain. Septum pellucidum Inferior horn Lateral aperture Lateral ventricle Anterior horn Interventricular foramen Third ventricle Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Central canal Posterior horn Inferior horn Median aperture Lateral aperture Anterior view Left lateral view

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cerebral Hemispheres Surface markings –Ridges (gyri), shallow grooves (sulci), and deep grooves (fissures) –Longitudinal fissure Separates two hemispheres –Transverse cerebral fissure Separates cerebrum and cerebellum

10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY Animation: Rotatable brain Cerebral Hemispheres Five lobes –Frontal –Parietal –Temporal –Occipital –Insula

11 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cerebral Hemispheres Central sulcus –Separates precentral gyrus of frontal lobe and postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe Parieto-occipital sulcus –Separates occipital and parietal lobes Lateral sulcus outlines temporal lobes

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cerebral Hemispheres Three basic regions –Cerebral cortex of gray matter superficially –White matter internally –Basal nuclei deep within white matter

13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.4c Lobes, sulci, and fissures of the cerebral hemispheres. Frontal lobe Postcentral gyrus Parietal lobe Central sulcus Precentral gyrus Parieto-occipital sulcus (on medial surface of hemisphere) Lateral sulcus Temporal lobe Occipital lobe Transverse cerebral fissure Pons Spinal cord Fissure (a deep sulcus) Gyrus Cortex (gray matter) Sulcus White matter Lobes and sulci of the cerebrum Medulla oblongata Cerebellum

14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal lobe Central sulcus Gyri of insula Temporal lobe (pulled down) Location of the insula lobe Figure 12.4d Lobes, sulci, and fissures of the cerebral hemispheres.

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.4a Lobes, sulci, and fissures of the cerebral hemispheres. Anterior Longitudinal fissure Frontal lobe Cerebral veins and arteries covered by arachnoid mater Left cerebral hemisphere Parietal lobe Right cerebral hemisphere Occipital lobe Superior view Posterior

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.4b Lobes, sulci, and fissures of the cerebral hemispheres. Left cerebral hemisphere Transverse cerebral fissure Cerebellum Brain stem Left lateral view

17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cerebral Cortex Thin (2–4 mm) superficial layer of gray matter 40% mass of brain Site of conscious mind: awareness, sensory perception, voluntary motor initiation, communication, memory storage, understanding

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 General Considerations of Cerebral Cortex 1.Three types of functional areas –Motor areas—control voluntary movement –Sensory areas—conscious awareness of sensation –Association areas—integrate diverse information 2.Each hemisphere concerned with contralateral side of body

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 General Considerations of Cerebral Cortex 3.Lateralization of cortical function in hemispheres 4.Conscious behavior involves entire cortex in some way

20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Motor Areas of Cerebral Cortex In frontal lobe; control voluntary movement Primary (somatic) motor cortex in precentral gyrus

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.6a Functional and structural areas of the cerebral cortex. Motor areas Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Frontal eye field Broca's area (outlined by dashes) Working memory for spatial tasks Executive area for task management Working memory for object-recall tasks Solving complex, multitask problems Prefrontal cortex Lateral view, left cerebral hemisphere Sensory areas and related association areas Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Gustatory cortex (in insula) Somatic sensation Taste Wernicke's area (outlined by dashes) Primary visual cortex Visual association area Auditory association area Primary auditory cortex Vision Hearing Central sulcus Primary motor cortex Motor association cortex Primary sensory cortex Sensory association cortex Multimodal association cortex

22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary Motor Cortex Large pyramidal cells of precentral gyri Long axons  pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts of spinal cord Allows conscious control of precise, skilled, skeletal muscle movements

23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.7 Body maps in the primary motor cortex and somatosensory cortex of the cerebrum. Posterior Motor Sensory Anterior Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) Primary somato- sensory cortex (postcentral gyrus) Motor map in precentral gyrus Sensory map in postcentral gyrus Swallowing Tongue Jaw Lips Face Eye Brow Neck Thumb Fingers Hand Elbow Wrist Toes Genitals Arm Shoulder Trunk Hip Foot Knee Leg Hip Trunk Neck Head Arm Elbow Forearm Hand Fingers Thumb Eye Nose Face Lips Teeth Jaw Gums Tongue Pharynx Intra- abdominal

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Premotor Cortex Helps plan movements; staging area for skilled motor activities Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions Controls voluntary actions that depend on sensory feedback

25 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Broca's Area Present in one hemisphere (usually the left) Motor speech area that directs muscles of speech production Active in planning speech and voluntary motor activities

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal Eye Field Controls voluntary eye movements

27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.6a Functional and structural areas of the cerebral cortex. Motor areas Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Frontal eye field Broca's area (outlined by dashes) Working memory for spatial tasks Executive area for task management Working memory for object-recall tasks Solving complex, multitask problems Prefrontal cortex Lateral view, left cerebral hemisphere Sensory areas and related association areas Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Gustatory cortex (in insula) Somatic sensation Taste Wernicke's area (outlined by dashes) Primary visual cortex Visual association area Auditory association area Primary auditory cortex Vision Hearing Central sulcus Primary motor cortex Motor association cortex Primary sensory cortex Sensory association cortex Multimodal association cortex

28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.6b Functional and structural areas of the cerebral cortex. Corpus callosum Frontal eye field Prefrontal cortex Processes emotions related to personal and social interactions Orbitofrontal cortex Olfactory bulb Olfactory tract Fornix Temporal lobe Primary olfactory cortex Uncus Calcarine sulcus Parahippocampal gyrus Parietal lobe Somatosensory association cortex Parieto-occipital sulcus Occipital lobe Visual association area Primary visual cortex Primary somatosensory cortex Central sulcus Primary motor cortex Cingulate gyrus Premotor cortex Parasagittal view, right cerebral hemisphere Primary motor cortex Motor association cortex Primary sensory cortex Sensory association cortex Multimodal association cortex

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Vestibular cortex Olfactory cortex Gustatory cortex Visceral sensory area Sensory Areas of Cerebral Cortex Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association cortex Visual areas Auditory areas Conscious awareness of sensation Occur in parietal, insular, temporal, and occipital lobes

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.7b Body maps in the primary motor cortex and somatosensory cortex of the cerebrum. Posterior Sensory Anterior Primary somato- sensory cortex (postcentral gyrus) Sensory map in postcentral gyrus Genitals Foot Knee Leg Hip Trunk Neck Head Arm Elbow Forearm Hand Fingers Thumb Eye Nose Face Lips Teeth Jaw Gums Tongue Pharynx Intra- abdominal


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