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Nervous System Outline

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Presentation on theme: "Nervous System Outline"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nervous System Outline
Health Occupations


3 Nervous System Functions
Directs the functions of all human body systems 100 Billion Nerve cells Carry messages from brain to rest of body

4 Neurons The basic element of nervous system Highly specialized
Vary in function, shape, and size Separated by synapses Gaps in between each neuron Neurotransmitters Stimulates impulse to jump to next nerve


6 Neurons 3 Parts Cell Body Dendrites Axon
Have fibers to reach out to send or receive impulses Dendrites Thin branching extensions of cell body Conduct nerve impulses to cell body Axon Conducts nerve impulses away from cell body Covered by a myelin sheath Fatty tissue that makes impulse travel faster End of axon has fibers that let the impulse leave the nerve


8 Neurons 2 Basic Properties Excitability Conductivity
Ability to respond to a stimulus Conductivity Ability to transmit a signal

9 Neurons 3 Types Efferent (motor) Afferent (sensory) Interneurons
Carry information to muscles and glands from CNS Afferent (sensory) Carry information from sensory system to CNS Interneurons Carry and process sensory information

10 Neuron bundles = Nerves
Stimulus Receptor Impulse Nerve Receptor

11 Neuroglias Support, connect, protect, and remove debris
Do not transmit impulses Form blood-brain barrier Permits some chemical substances to reach the brain’s neurons but blocks most others

12 Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of: Brain Spinal cord Center of Control


14 CNS Functions Receives and interprets all stimuli
Sends nerve impulses to instruct muscles and glands to take over or respond to certain actions Causes Voluntary and Involuntary actions


16 Brain Divisions Brainstem Cerebellum Cerebrum Diencephalon

17 Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Visual reflexes
Controls certain respiratory functions Medulla Oblongata Regulates heart & lung functions Swallowing Vomiting Coughing sneezing

18 Cerebellum Coordinates musculoskeletal movement Maintains balance
Posture Muscle tone


20 Cerebrum 2 hemispheres Cerebral Cortex Four Lobes Left and Right
Conscious decision making Four Lobes Frontal Moral Behavior, voluntary motor movements Parietal Controls and interprets senses and taste Temporal Memory, equilibrium, emotion, hearing Occipital vision

21 Diencephalon Deep portion of brain Contains:
Thalamus Hypothalamus Relay center for sensations Controls: Heart rate Blood pressure Temperature regulation Water and electrolyte balance Digestive functions Glandular activities

22 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Fills the area between the brain and cranium Watery fluid that contains various compound Cradles and cushions brain

23 Spinal Cord Extends from base of brain to first lumbar vertebrae in back Protected by: Cerebrospinal fluid Vertebral column Meninges 3 layers of membranes that cover brain and spinal cord

24 Meninges Dura Mater (outer layer) Arachnoid Mater (middle layer)
Tough, fibrous Contains channels for blood to enter brain tissue Arachnoid Mater (middle layer) Web-like structure Pia Mater (innermost layer) Contains blood vessels that nourish spinal cord


26 Peripheral Nervous System
12 Cranial Nerves Carry impulses to and from the brain 31 pairs of spinal nerves Carry messages to and from the spinal cord and the torso and extremities of the body

27 Peripheral Nervous System
2 Subsystems according to function Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System

28 Somatic Nervous System
Receive and process sensory input from the skin, muscles, tendons, joints, eyes, tongue, nose and ears Excite voluntary contraction of skeletal muscles


30 Autonomic Nervous System
Carry impulses from the central nervous system to glands, various involuntary muscles, cardiac muscle, and membranes Stimulates organs, glands and senses by stimulating secretions of substances Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

31 Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Operates when the body is under stress Activates responses necessary to react in dangerous or abnormal situations Fight or Flight response Parasympathetic Operates to keep the body in homeostasis under normal conditions

32 The End

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