Presentation on theme: "The Cerebral Cortex. The Evolving Brain Different animal species have many structures in common, including a cerebellum and cortex. The cortex is much."— Presentation transcript:
The Evolving Brain Different animal species have many structures in common, including a cerebellum and cortex. The cortex is much larger in mammals than in species that evolved earlier, such as fish and amphibians. The cross section of the human brain shows how the cerebral cortex has developed around and above more primitive brain structures.
Areas of the Cortex More intelligent animals have increased "uncommitted" or association areas of the cortex. These vast areas of the brain are responsible for integrating and acting on information received and processed by sensory areas.
When it comes to Cortex… Size DOES Matter If flattened, a human cortex would cover about four pages of this book. A chimpanzee's would cover one page a monkey's a postcard a rat's a postage stamp. From Scientific American, October 1994, p. 102.
Developing Brain Neural tube—beginning of nervous system develops at 2 weeks after conception Neurogenesis—development of new neurons
Forebrain Structures Largest Brain Region with the most complex structures. What separates us from the beasts.
Cortical Specialization Localization—notion that different functions are located in different areas of the brain Lateralization—notion that different functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain or the other
Left & Right sides are separate Corpus Callosum : major pathway between hemispheres Some functions are ‘lateralized’ –language on left –spacial relations, music on right Lateralization is never 100% Brain has 2 Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Corpus Callosum Right Hemisphere
Lateralization of the Hemispheres An Example of Spacial Relations Answer: E
Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal
Motor Cortex Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe Motor Cortex Motor Cortex Broca’s Area Contains primary motor cortex Important in judgment, planning and sequencing areas Controls emotional center of the brain (limbic system) Contains Broca’s area for speech Prefrontal area for working memory (Short-Term Memory) – helps you remember what you just did so you know what to do next (sequencing)
Temporal Lobe Temporal Lobe Temporal Lobe Auditory Cortex Contains primary auditory cortex – interprets hearing info Inputs are auditory, visual patterns –speech recognition –face recognition (Fusiform Gyrus) –word recognition –memory formation Outputs to limbic System, Basal Ganglia, and brainstem
Occipital Lobe Input from Optic nerve Contains primary visual cortex –Makes sense of visual info Sends info to parietal and temporal lobes Occipital Lobe Visual Lobe
Parietal Lobe Somatosensory Cortex Parietal Lobe Receives info from multiple senses Contains primary somatosensory cortex your “skin” sense of touch and temperature. Sends info to Frontal lobe to help in: hand-eye coordination eye movements attention
Lobes of the Cortex Frontal lobe—largest lobe, produces voluntary muscle movements, involved in thinking, planning, emotional control Temporal lobe—primary receiving area for auditory information Occipital lobe—primary receiving area for visual information Parietal lobe—processes sensory information from your body information
BOREDOM BUSTER! Let’s Review with Pinky & The Brain.Pinky & The Brain
Motor Cortex: Located at the back of the Frontal Lobe. The more precise movements, the more motor cortex the part uses up. Sensory Cortex: Located at the front of the Parietal Lobe. The more sensitive the area, the more sensory cortex it uses up.
Language and the Brain Aphasia—partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand language because of brain injury or damage Broca’s area—plays role in speech production Wernicke’s area—plays role in understanding and meaningful speech
Aphasias Broca’s Aphasia – Damage to Broca’s Area causes a person to struggle formulating words while still being able to comprehend speech. Wernicke’s Aphasia – Damage to Wernicke’s Area would cause a person only to be able to speak in meaningless words. Example of Wernicke’s Aphasia: Asked to describe a picture of two boys stealing cookies from behind a woman’s back, a patient responded, “Mother is away her working her work to get her better, but when she’s looking the two boys looking the other part. She’s working another time.” Mnemonic to remember: You can't read Wernicke's words and Broca's makes you babble