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BIO 210 Chapter 13 Supplement 3 The Central Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt.

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Presentation on theme: "BIO 210 Chapter 13 Supplement 3 The Central Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIO 210 Chapter 13 Supplement 3 The Central Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt

2 CEREBRUM Largest, Uppermost Division STRUCTURE CEREBRAL HEMISHPERES LOBES

3 CEREBRAL HEMISHPERES 2 Halves of the Cerebrum That are Joined

4 Sheep Brain: Cerebral Hemispheres

5 LOBES of the CEREBRUM LOBES Cerebrum is Divided into Lobes by Fissures Majority of Lobes Named After Bones FRONTAL LOBE PARIETAL LOBE TEMPORAL LOBE OCCIPITAL LOBE INSULA Lies Hidden in the Lateral Fissure

6 LOBES of the CEREBRUM: Insula Lies Hidden in the Lateral Fissure (a.k.a. lateral sulcus)

7 Insula Photos

8 Cerebral Fissures FISSURES (4 Major) LONGITUDINAL FISSURE (next slide) CENTRAL SULCUS (aka central fissure) LATERAL FISSURE PARIETALOCCIPITAL FISSURE

9 Cerebral Fissures: Longitudinal Deepest; Divides Cerebrum into 2 Hemispheres

10 Cerebral Fissures: Central Sulcus

11 Cerebral Fissures: Lateral Fissures

12 Cerebral Fissures: Parietaloccipital

13 CEREBRAL CORTEX CONVOLUTIONS (GYRI) are Folds SULCI are Grooves

14 Cerebrum vs. Cerebellum Cerebral Cortex has Convolutions and Sulci as Cerebellum, Both Larger in Cerebrum

15 Cerebral Tracts White Matter of the Cerebrum Lies Below the Cortex Cerebrum Has 3 Major Kinds of Tracts PROJECTION TRACTS ASSOCIATION TRACTS COMMISSURAL TRACTS

16 PROJECTION TRACTS are Extensions of Tracts of Spinal Cord & Brainstem, ascending & descending. Example of Ascending (Sensory) spinothalamic Example of Descending (Motor) corticospinal

17 Projection Tracts: Sensory/Ascending-spinothalamic

18 Projection Tracts: Motor/Descending-corticospinal

19 ASSOCIATION TRACTS Tracts That Extend From 1 Convolution to Another Convolution in the SAME Hemisphere Most Numerous

20 COMMISSURAL TRACTS Tracts That Extend From 1 Convolution to a Corresponding Convolution in the OPPOSITE Hemisphere Compose the Corpus Callosum

21 Additional Cerebral Structures CEREBRAL NUCLEI (BASAL GANGLIA) CORPUS CALLOSUM SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM

22 CEREBRAL NUCLEI (BASAL GANGLIA) Gray Matter Located Deep Within the Cerebrums White Matter

23 CEREBRAL NUCLEI (BASAL GANGLIA)

24 CORPUS CALLOSUM White Curved Structure That Joins the 2 Cerebral Hemispheres Composed of Commissural Tracts

25 SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM Membrane That Lies Below the Corpus Callosum Covers the Lateral Ventricles

26 FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX Organized Into 3 Groups SENSORY, MOTOR, & INTEGRATIVE.

27 FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

28 SENSORY FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX Cortex Involved in the Interpretation of Sensations

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31 MAJOR SENSORY AREAS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX PRIMARY SOMATIC SENSORY AREA (POSTCENTRAL GYRUS): CONTAINS SOMATIC SENSORY MAP VISUAL CORTEX (OCCIPITAL LOBE) PRIMARY AUDITORY AREA (TRANSVERSE GYRUS) PRIMARY TASTE AREA

32 MAJOR SENSORY AREAS PRIMARY SOMATIC SENSORY AREA POSTCENTRAL GYRUS CONTAINS SOMATIC SENSORY MAP Major Area Involved in the Interpretation of General Sensations Located in the Postcentral Gyrus (Parietal Lobe) Contains a Somatic Sensory (General Sense) Map

33 VISUAL CORTEX (OCCIPITAL LOBE) Major Area Involved in the Interpretation of Vision Located in the Occipital Lobe

34 PRIMARY AUDITORY AREA (TRANSVERSE GYRUS) Major Area Involved in the Interpretation of Hearing Located in the Transverse Gyrus (Temporal Lobe)

35 PRIMARY TASTE AREA Major Area Involved in the Interpretation of Taste Located in the Postcentral Gyrus

36 ASSOCIATION AREAS Areas that Assist the Major Sensory Areas in the Interpretation of Sensations In Addition, Other Areas of the Brain are Also Involved in the Interpretation of Sensation (i.e., Mamillary Bodies, Corpora Quadrigemina, Thalamus)

37 MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX Cortex also Involved the Producing Normal Voluntary Movements of Skeletal Muscles

38 MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX Movements of Skeletal Muscles PRIMARY SOMATIC MOTOR AREA (PRECENTRAL GYRUS): CONTAINS SOMATIC MOTOR MAP Major Area Responsible for Producing Voluntary Movements (Nerve Impulses Begin Here) Located in the Precentral Gyrus (Frontal Lobe) Contains a Somatic Motor (Skeletal Muscle) Map

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41 Sensory & Motor Maps

42 Motor Functions continued… PREMOTOR AREA Assists the Major Motor Area in Producing Voluntary Movements Located in the Frontal Lobe In Addition, Other Areas of the Brain are Also Involved in Producing Normal Voluntary Movements (i.e., Cerebellum, Cerebral Nuclei, Thalamus)

43 Integrative Functions 3 cerebral functions: Sensory Motor Integrative Integrative Functions Reticular Activating System-awareness Language-understanding & speech Limbic System-emotions Memory

44 INTEGRATIVE FUNCTIONS: Awareness CONSCIOUSNESS RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM Awareness of One's Self, the Environment, Others

45 INTEGRATIVE FUNCTIONS: Awareness Involves the Reticular Activating System (RAS) RAS = Neuron Pathways of the Reticular Formation, Brainstem, Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Mechanism: As NI are Continuously Conducted Over the RAS and Excite Key Areas of the Cerebral Cortex, Consciousness Results RAS Functions as the Arousal (Alerting) Mechanism

46 Integrative functions: LANGUAGE (SPEECH CENTERS) The 2 major Speech Centers Include: Wernicke's Area: Sensory Speech Area (Understanding Language) Broca's Area: Motor Speech Area (Use of Language) Speech Centers Are Usually Located in the Left Cerebral Hemisphere

47 Integrative functions: EMOTIONS (LIMBIC SYSTEM) Limbic System Structures Form a Curving Border Around the Corpus Callosum E.g. Cingulate gyrus & Hippocampus Involved in Both the Experience and the Expression of Emotions There Are Other Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Important in the Expression of Emotions

48 Integrative functions: Memory Considered a Major Function of the Cerebral Cortex Involves Many Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Also Appears to Involve the Limbic System

49 Memory Formation

50 Memory Involves Many Brain Areas Most activities involve multiple brain areas Consider hearing and then repeating words: impulses start in the ear and end in the precentral gyrus

51 GENERALIZATIONS ABOUT CEREBRAL FUNCTIONS LEFT AND RIGHT HEMISPHERES SPECIALIZE IN DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS Left: Language, Right: Nonlanguage (i.e., Images or Nonspeech Sounds) Both Hemispheres Work Together to Accomplish Functions

52 CEREBRAL ACTIVITY GOES ON AS LONG AS LIFE ITSELF (EEG) Cerebral Activity: Nerve Impulses (Measured as Brain Waves) Absence of Brain Waves = Death (Brain Death) Evidence Comes From EEG Electroencephalogram: Measures Brain Waves)

53 SENSORY PATHWAYS FOR THE CEREBRAL CORTEX TO PERFORM ITS SENSORY FUNCTIONS, IMPULSES MUST BE CONDUCTED TO ITS SENSORY AREAS ALONG SENSORY PATHWAYS Example: Spinothalamic Sensory Pathways: See Handout & Next Slide Sensory Pathways Are Crossed

54 SENSORY PATHWAYSSENSORY PATHWAYS

55 Motor Pathways FOR THE CEREBRAL CORTEX TO PERFORM ITS MOTOR FUNCTIONS, IMPULSES MUST BE CONDUCTED FROM ITS MOTOR AREAS TO SKELETAL MUSCLES ALONG SOMATIC MOTOR PATHWAYS Example: Corticospinal Somatic Motor Pathways: See Handout & Next Slide Most (Though Not All) Somatic Motor Pathways Are Crossed

56 Motor PathwaysMotor Pathways

57 LEFT BRAIN & RIGHT BRAIN LEFT AND RIGHT HEMISPHERES SPECIALIZE IN DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS due to ascending and descending pathways being crossed.


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