9Positron Emission Tomography PET ScanConcentration of glucoseRadioactivity decays rapidly, so limited to monitoring short tasksMaps areas of the brain responsible for specific activities such as movement or speech
10Functional MRIIdentifies most active areas of the brain during a specific mental taskIdentify regions of the brain that handle pain
11Brain StructuresScientists divide the brain up into three parts.
12Brain Regions– medulla, pons, reticular formation, thalamus, cerebellumHippocampus, Amygdala, Hypothalamusfrontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe,Oldest to newest RegionsIn more evolved creatures are the limbic system and cerebral cortexCerebral cortex - most highly developed part of the human brain – responsible for thinking and information processessing
13Brain Stem Part of the brain with the oldest ancestry 5 Regions: MedullaPonsReticular formationThalamusCerebellumNOT consciously aware of brain stems functionssecretary of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.secretarye of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.In charge of all of the functions your body needs to stay alive ie. Breathing, digestions, blood circulation, controls involuntary muscles – stomach heart,Brains secretary – sorts through all of the messages that brain and rest of body send back and forth
14Limbic System EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain. REWARD CENTER of the brain (hypothalamus)Located between the brainstem and cerebral hemispheresMade up of Hypothalamus, Amygdala and Hippocampus.Only mammals and humans have a limbic system – gives us capability for emotions and memoryDrug addiction and cravings are associate with the limbic systems pleasue
15Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphereThe association areas—areas that are free to process all kinds of informationAssociation areas are located in the cerebral cortexRegions not assoc with motor and sensory cortex¾ of cortex is Uncommitted to sensory or muscular activity (motor cortex or sensory cortex)Association areas – involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speakingEx. Enables you to recognize me as your favorite teacher!Anticipate you will receive a detention for your bad behavior in class or suspended for drinking at a football gameKnow that you will get called down to Short’s office if you are fighting in the hallway
17Association Areas Locate in cerebral cortex Not directly involved in sensory and motor activity (sensory cortex, motor cortex, visual cortex or auditory cortex)Involved in higher mental functions such asExample:
19Language Development Aphasia – Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Broca’s Area –Temporal LobeWernicke’s Area –Parietal LobeAngular Gyrus –Aphasia – impairment of language caused usually by a strokeSubfunctions of speech are produced in different areas of the brainBroca’s - Involved in controlling speech = left frontal lobeWernicke’s – involved in understanding and producing meaningful speech – left temporal lobeAngular gyrus – enables you to read aloud
21The Divided Brain Plasticity – . Neurogenesis – The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.Contraint induced therapy - teaching a patient to regain the use of an impaired limb by limiting the use of the good limbNeurogenesis –Functions of one brain area taking over the functions of another damaged brain areaConstraint induced therapy – Teaching a patient to regain the use of an impaired limb by limiting his or her use of the good limbrewire damaged brains by forcing patients to use a nonfunctioning limb.Feeling the existance of an amputated part of the body is a result of brain plasticityNeurogenesis - Recent brain research contradicts previously held beliefs, indicating that new neurons are actually formed in the brain.Physical exercise, sleep and exposure to stimulating environments can help to form new neuronsChristopher Reeves was able to regain some functioning in his lungs and fingers (moved finger on national television) = some hope for neurogenisis if spinal cord damagedWhat can you do to producenew neurons?
22HemispheresBrain Lateralization - divided into a left and right hemisphere.Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa.Left Brain –Right Brain –Brain lateralization – specialization of each hemisphere recognize faces with right hemisphere, but not leftPerceive an optical illusion – right hemisphereRead facial emotion – right hemisphereAdding a series of numbers – left brainWhat certain words have in common – inferencesLeft handedness = genes or prenatal factors may influence, but identical twins are unlikely to share meaning…not likely genetic
23Split-Brain Patients Sperry and Gazzaniga Corpus Callosum – connects two brain hemispheres and carries messages between themRemoved in patients with severe epilepsyWhen removed you have a split-brain patient.Corpus callosum – quickly transfers info from one side of the brain to othersPsychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE·ART on a screen. HE appeared in the left visual field, ART in the right. When asked, patients said they saw ARTPsychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE·ART on a screen. HE appeared in the left visual field, ART in the right. When asked to point to the word with their left hand, patients pointed to HECan simultaneously copy different figures with the right and left hand
25Figure 3B.23 Testing the divided brain When an experimenter flashes the word HEART across the visual field, a woman with a split brainHowever, if asked to indicate with her left hand what she saw,.From Gazzaniga, 1983
26Figure 3B. 25 Which one is happier Figure 3B.25 Which one is happier? Look at the center of one face, then the other. Does one appear happier?