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The Brain Module 08. Lower - Level Brain Structures brainstem: oldest, most basic part of brain medulla – controls life-support functions like breathing.

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Presentation on theme: "The Brain Module 08. Lower - Level Brain Structures brainstem: oldest, most basic part of brain medulla – controls life-support functions like breathing."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Brain Module 08

2 Lower - Level Brain Structures brainstem: oldest, most basic part of brain medulla – controls life-support functions like breathing & the cardiovascular system reticular formation – nerve network that controls wakefulness and arousal thalamus – brain’s sensory switchboard cerebellum – controls balance, muscle coordination, memories for using body

3 Lower-Level Brain Structures cerebellum

4 The Limbic System hypothalamus – helps regulate hunger, thirst, body temp. “flight or fight reaction, linked to emotion (aggression, pleasure, stress reactions, and mating) hippocampus – helps process new memories amygdala – linked to emotions like fear & anger

5 The Limbic System

6 The Cerebral Cortex longitudinal fissure – divides brain into hemispheres corpus callosum – connects brain hemispheres & carries messages between lobes: frontal – judgment & planning, organizing, voluntary movement, language processing parietal – association areas, math reasoning, processing touch information (sensation) occipital – vision temporal – auditory & language processing (hearing & speaking)

7 Longitudinal Fissure & Corpus Callosum

8 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

9 Cerebral Cortex

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13 Motor Cortex controls voluntary movement (back strip of the frontal lobes) different parts of the motor cortex control different parts of the body cross-wired pattern (ex. left cortex controls right side of body) parts requiring more intricate movement have more brain tissue than larger parts of body

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15 Somatosensory Cortex registers and processes body senses (front strip of the parietal lobes) gives more brain tissue to parts of body that are more sensitive to touch (fingertips) than those that are less sensitive (arms)

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17 Brain Diagrams Label & color each of the following brain structures. Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Somatosensory Cortex Motor Cortex Cerebellum Thalamus Medulla Corpus Callosum Cerebellum Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Refer to pages

18 Hemispheric Differences

19 two hemispheres but they work as a single entity both sides continually communicate via the corpus callosum

20 Hemispheric Differences

21 Left Hemisphere language functions (for most people) two important language regions: Broca’s Area (frontal lobe) responsible for muscle movements of speech Damage (strokes): can form ideas but not express them Wernicke’s Area (temporal lobe) responsible for language comprehension and expression; our ability to understand what is said to us

22 Damage to Broca’s Area This is the brain of “Tan” from whom Broca discovered the area for speech. Note the damage to Broca’s Area.

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24 PET Scan of Broca’s & Wernicke’s Areas

25 Right Hemisphere spatial abilities - perceive or organize things in a given space, judge distance helps in making connections between words Example: What word goes with painting, ring, and nail?

26 Brain Plasticity

27 Plasticity ability of the brain tissue to take on new functions greatest in childhood important if parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed

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29 The Split Brain read pages 150 – 151 (explain this photo)


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