Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Major Brain Structures and Functions Made by Ms. Collins Unscrupulously used by Mr. McNalis.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Major Brain Structures and Functions Made by Ms. Collins Unscrupulously used by Mr. McNalis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Brain Structures and Functions Made by Ms. Collins Unscrupulously used by Mr. McNalis

2 Warning! The brain is not neatly organized into structures that correspond to specific behaviors Most behavior involves neural activity in many brain parts Here we are generalizing! The brain is not as simple as we will make it sound!

3 The Brainstem: Oldest part of the brain; Present in all mammals; Hidden underneath cerebrum Brain Stem

4 daf Pons: “bridge” between cerebral cortex and medulla; involved in coordination of movement, sleep, arousal, facial expressions place where spinal cord begins to swell; life support center: breathing, heart rate, blood pressure “netlike”; runs from the spinal cord to the thalamus; arousal; alerts higher parts of the brain; neurons with serotonin and norepinephrine are found here (help us respond based on state of arousal) Your brainstem is also your crossover point: most nerves to and from each side of the brain connect with the body’s opposite side

5 Thalamus and Cerebellum Thalamus: 2 egg shaped structures; sensory switchboard; receives info from all senses (except smell) and routes them to higher brain regions; “gateway” to the cortex; also involved in sleep (helps us tune out during deep sleep) Why not smell? Smell is an “old” sense; It goes to the olfactory cortex and then the thalamus baseball sized; “little brain”; judgment of time, discrimination of sounds and textures; coordinates voluntary movement; balance; coordination; memories of skills; certain reflexes

6 Midbrain: In between brain stem and limbic system smallest “region”; acts as a relay station for auditory and visual information; control of body movement; degeneration of dopamine neurons here causes Parkinson’s; one of the areas where pain is registered

7 Limbic System: “border” between brain’s older and newer parts “sea horse: new memories; learning lima bean sized; “almond”; influence fear and aggression; processing of emotional memories “below”; reward center: hunger, thirst, body temperature, sexual behavior; monitors blood chemistry; motivation; biological rhythms part of endocrine system; master gland; works with hypothalamus to secrete certain hormones

8 Cerebrum: Two Large Hemispheres; 85% of the brain’s weight Cerebral Cortex: “bark”; thin layer of interconnected neural cells that cover the hemispheres; contains more than 300 trillion synapses The more complex the animal, the larger the cerebral cortex What’s underneath? Filled with the axons that connect the cortex to the brain’s other regions Divided into lobes based upon fissures or folds Brain’s two halves are connected by the corpus callosum (band of neural tissue that connects the two halves of the brain)

9 Corpus Callosum


11 What’s in the Cerebral Cortex? Specialized cortexes control sensory functions (movement, sight, hearing, touch, etc) Other areas are known as association areas – Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions – Involved in higher mental functioning (learning, remembering, thinking, speaking, etc)

12 Association Areas

13 Frontal Lobes Executive control center: coordinates messages from all of the lobes Association Areas: judgment, planning, processing of new memories, personality Cortex: Prefrontal cortex – goal directed behavior, control of impulses, metacognition (thinking about thinking), attention

14 Motor Cortex In the back of the frontal lobe – Arc –shaped from ear to ear (like a headband!) Controls voluntary movements Body areas that require precise control (fingers, mouth) take up more space in the motor cortex

15 Parietal Lobes Association Areas: mathematical and spatial reasoning (larger and unusually shaped in Einstein's brain) Cortex: Sensory Cortex – front of parietal lobe; registers and processes touch, taste, pain, skin temperature

16 (Somato)Sensory and Motor Cortex

17 Temporal Lobes Association Areas: balance, equilibrium; right side allows us to recognize faces Auditory cortex: processes auditory information

18 Occipital Lobes Auditory Cortex: Processes visual information

19 Language Broca’s Area: controls language expression – Usually in the left frontal lobe – Directs muscle movement involved in speech Wernicke’s Area: controls language reception – Usually in the left temporal lobe – Involved in language comprehension and expression – “Mother is always her working her work to get her better, but when she’s looking the two boys looking the other part. She’s working another time” Aphasia: impairment of language


21 Language

22 Brain (Neural) Plasticity The brain’s ability to modify itself after some types of damage Severed neurons do not usually regenerate Instead, the brain’s neural tissue can reorganize itself One brain area can take on functions not normally “assigned” to that area Brain’s are most plastic when we are young

Download ppt "Major Brain Structures and Functions Made by Ms. Collins Unscrupulously used by Mr. McNalis."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google