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Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 3-2 Changing Self and Other- Perceptions of Female Firefighters Camp Fully Involved, a six-day intensive firefighter course for teenage girls, builds self-confidence and dissolves the stereotype that firefighting is only for men.

3 3-3 Self-Concept Defined  An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations  “Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?”  Compare perceived job with our perceived and ideal selves.  Includes three self-concept dimensions and four “selves” processes

4 3-4  Complexity People have multiple self-views  Consistency Similar personality and values across multiple selves  Clarity Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time.  People have better well-being with: multiple selves (complexity) well established selves (clarity) selves are similar and compatible with traits (consistency) Self-Concept Dimensions (3 C’s)

5 3-5  Self-enhancement Promoting and protecting our positive self-view  Self-verification Affirming our existing self-concept  Self-evaluation Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self- efficacy and locus of control  Social self Defining ourselves in terms of group membership Four “Selves” of Self-Concept

6 3-6  Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued  Positive self-concept outcomes: better personal adjustment and mental/physical health inflates personal causation and probability of success Self-Concept: Self-Enhancement

7 3-7  Motivation to verify/maintain our self-concept  Stabilizes our self-concept  People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept  Self-verification outcomes: More likely to perceive information consistent with our self-concept We interact more with those who affirm/reflect our current self-concept Self-Concept: Self-Verification

8 3-8  Self-esteem High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical  Self-efficacy Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a task successfully General vs. task-specific self-efficacy  Locus of control General belief about personal control over life events Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation

9 3-9 Self-Concept: Social Self Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment We identify with groups that support self-enhancement Employees at other firms People living in other countries Graduates of other schools An individual’s social identity Edward Jones Employee American Resident/Citizen Indiana U. Graduate Contrasting Groups Social Identity

10 3-10 Perception Defined  The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us Determining which information gets noticed how to categorize this information how to interpret information within our existing knowledge framework

11 3-11 Selective Attention  Selecting vs ignoring sensory information  Affected by object and perceiver characteristics  Emotional markers attached to selected information  Confirmation bias Information contrary to our beliefs/values is screened out

12 3-12  Categorical thinking Mostly nonconscious process of organizing people/things  Perceptual grouping principles Similarity or proximity Closure -- filling in missing pieces Perceiving trends  Interpreting incoming information Emotional markers automatically evaluate information Perceptual Organization/Interpretation

13 3-13  Internal representations of the external world  Help make sense of situations Fill in missing pieces Help to predict events  Problem with mental models: May block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives Mental Models in Perceptions

14 3-14 Stereotyping  Assigning traits to people based on social category membership  Occurs because: Categorical thinking Innate drive to understand and anticipate others’ behavior Enhances our self-concept

15 3-15 Social identity and self-enhancement reinforce stereotyping through:  Categorization -- Categorize people into groups  Homogenization -- Assign similar traits within a group; different traits to other groups  Differentiation process -- Assign less favorable attributes to other groups Stereotyping Through Categorization, Homogenization, Differentiation

16 3-16  Stereotyping Problems Overgeneralizes – doesn’t represent everyone in the category Basis of systemic and intentional discrimination  Overcoming stereotype biases Difficult to prevent stereotype activation Possible to minimize stereotype application Stereotyping Problems/Solutions

17 3-17 Attribution Process Perception that behavior is caused by person’s own motivation or ability Internal Attribution External Attribution Perception that behavior is caused by situation or fate -- beyond person’s control

18 3-18 Attribution Rules External Attribution FrequentlyConsistencySeldom Internal Attribution FrequentlyDistinctivenessSeldomSeldomConsensusFrequently

19 3-19  Fundamental Attribution Error attributing own actions to internal and external factors and others’ actions to internal factors  Self-Serving Bias attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors Attribution Errors

20 3-20 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle Supervisorformsexpectations Expectations affect supervisor’s behavior Supervisor’s behavior affects employee Employee’s behavior matches expectations

21 3-21  the beginning of the relationship (e.g. employee joins the team) ...when several people have similar expectations about the person ...when the employee has low rather than high past achievement Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Effect is Strongest...

22 3-22  Halo effect One trait affects perception of person’s other traits  False-consensus effect overestimate how many others have similar beliefs or traits like ours  Primacy effect First impressions  Recency effect Most recent information dominates perceptions Other Perceptual Effects

23 3-23 1. Awareness of perceptual biases 2. Improving self-awareness Applying Johari Window 3. Meaningful interaction Close, frequent interaction toward a shared goal Equal status Engaged in a meaningful task Strategies to Improve Perceptions

24 3-24 Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others OpenAreaBlindArea UnknownArea HiddenArea Know Yourself (Johari Window) OpenAreaBlindArea HiddenAreaUnknownArea Disclosure Feedback

25 3-25 Meaningful Interaction at Herschend Family Entertainment Herschend Family Entertainment CEO Joel Manby worked incognito along-side employees as part of the television program Undercover Boss. The experience helped Manby improve his perceptions of the workplace as well as his own leadership behavior.

26 3-26  An individual’s ability to perceive, appreciate, and empathize with people from other cultures, and to process complex cross-cultural information. awareness of, openness to, and respect for other views and practices in the world capacity to empathize and act effectively across cultures ability to process complex information about novel environments ability to comprehend and reconcile intercultural matters with multiple levels of thinking Global Mindset

27 3-27 1. Self-awareness activities – understand own values, beliefs, attitudes 2. Compare mental models with people from other cultures 3. Cross-cultural training 4. Immersion in other cultures Developing a Global Mindset

28 Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations

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