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Perception and Attributions. perception The process of interpreting and understanding our surroundings. Repetitive behaviors before a game or during a.

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Presentation on theme: "Perception and Attributions. perception The process of interpreting and understanding our surroundings. Repetitive behaviors before a game or during a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Perception and Attributions

2 perception The process of interpreting and understanding our surroundings. Repetitive behaviors before a game or during a game. Is Governor Vilsack (Coach McCarney) doing a good job. Why or Why not?

3 Strong Urge to make sense of our environment. Have any of you traveled and been mystified by something that happens. Same happens at work. Why was someone promoted. Why did they get the window office. Why did they mess up on the job.

4 So much of our world is a manner of interpretation. Ghosts, auras, witchcraft? My experiences in Hong Kong.

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7 Problem So much is open to interpretation

8 Same with work and supervision Is someone doing a good job/poor job. Does someone need help? Did you really here what someone was saying

9 Supervisors are constantly assessing subordinates. Job performance Promotion potential Talents, skills.

10 Perceptual Errors is assessments The tendency to evaluate people or objects by comparing them with characteristics of recently observed people or objects Contrast effects The tendency to remember recent information. If the information is negative, the person or object is evaluated negatively Recency effects The tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral Central tendency A personal characteristic that leads an individual to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremely positive fashion Leniency A rater forms an overall impression about an object and then uses that impression to bias ratings about the object Halo DescriptionPerceptual Error 7-13 Table 7-2 McGraw-Hill

11 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Self-Fulfilling ProphecySelf-Fulfilling Prophecy or Pygmalion Effect, is that people’s expectations or beliefs determine their behavior and performance, thus serving to make their expectations come true 7-14 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 A Model of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Supervisor expectancy 6 3 Motivation 4 Performance 5 1 Leadership Subordinate self- expectancy Figure 7-2 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Methods to Increase Employees’ Self-Expectations Recognize that everyone has the potential to increase his or her performance Instill confidence in your staff Set high performance goals Positively reinforce employees for a job well done Help employees advance through the organization 7-16 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Poor performer too if want to keep performer. Give tasks can succeed. Support person to succeed. Avoid monitoring. Avoid constant feedback. Avoid negative feedback.

15 Stereotypes Examples of stereotypes.

16 Stereotypes Stereotype is an individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of people 7-8 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 Stereotyping is a Four-Step Process 1)Begins by categorizing people into groups 2)Infer that all people in a category possess similar traits or characteristics 3)Form expectations of others and interpret their behavior according to stereotypes 4)Stereotypes are maintained 7-11.

18 So Why do many people have stereotypes?

19 Managing Stereotypes Video

20 Attributions Suspected or inferred causes of behavior. Examples.

21 Modified Version of Weiner’s Attribution Model Someone performs a task Judgment of success Internal Factors External Factors self esteem (+) expectancy of future success (+) pride (+) shame (-) depression (-) Higher Future Performance self esteem (+or-) expectancy of future success (+or-) pride (+or-) shame (+or-) depression (+or-) Lower to Higher Future Performance 7-22 Figure 7-4 cont. McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Modified Version of Weiner’s Attribution Model Someone performs a task Judgment of failure Internal Factors External Factors self esteem (-) expectancy of future success (-) pride (-) shame (+) depression (+) Higher Future Performance self esteem (+or-) expectancy of future success (+or-) pride (+or-) shame (+or-) depression (+or-) Lower to Higher Future Performance 7-23 Figure 7-4 cont. McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Case Mary Martin

24 Major problems with supervision Fundamental attribution bias—Everything is internal Self Serving bias. Internal Success, External Failure. Problem employee Mary Martin. Tests. Trick in management. Change is most likely to occur if internal.

25 Summary People are simplistic information processors. Good qualities—speed Bad qualities accuracy. Supervisors need to work more on accuracy for critical decisions. Listen to diverse perceptions rather than dismiss them.

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