2 THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT The IndividualInterpersonal Influence and Group BehaviorOrganizational ProcessesGroup behavior and work teamsIntergroup conflict and negotiationsOrganizational power and politicsCommunicationSkills & AbilitiesPerceptionPersonalityAttitudesValuesLeadershipCommunicationsDecision makingReward SystemJob DesignINDIVIDUALBEHAVIOR IN THEORGANIZATION
3 First law of human behavior: “People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.”Caveat
4 PerceptionPerception is the process by which individuals make sense of their world.Individuals organize and interpret information from their environments using perceptual filterspersonality, psychology, experience, preferences, beliefs-based differencesObjective vs. perceived realities
5 Perception People perceive the world uniquely Differences in perceptions can cause problemsCommunicationConflictMotivationJudgmentDecision Making
6 Object PerceptionProximity – things close together are seen as belongingtogether.
7 Object Perception Figure-Ground: The figure and the background “switch”
8 Social PerceptionHow we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior, moods, motives, and traitsSimilar to object perception, butPeople are more dynamic than objectsWe’re trying to figure out intentions, motives, and causes of behavior
9 Attribution Why did they do that? internal causes external causes traitsskillsabilitiesexternal causessituational constraints
10 4 attributions for the cause of performance StableUnstableInternalExternal
11 How do we determine cause? (Kelley) Consensus - how do others behaveConsistency - this person on other occasionsDistinctiveness - this person in other situations
12 Errors/Biases in Social Perception Selective perceptionnotice stimuli which are salient due to our interests, background, experiencesClosuretendency to fill in the gaps when information is missingAssume what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know
13 Errors/Biases in Social Perception Halo EffectsImpression on one dimension affects impression of unrelated dimensionContrastStereotypingA person has beliefs about a class of stimulus objects and generalizes those beliefs to encounters with members of that class of objects.Primacy/Recency effectsDisproportionately high weight is given to the first/last information obtained about a stimulus
14 First ImpressionsInfluences what subsequent information we notice and how it is interpreted“Fill-in” information consistent with first impressionAnchoringFailure to adjust for subsequent informationConfirmation BiasSeek out information & perceive stimuli in ways that confirm expectationsDiscount contradictory informationSelf fulfilling prophecy (2-way)Recency—availability bias
15 Errors/Biases in Social Perception Actor-observer difference (aka “the fundamental attribution error”)Actors attribute their behavior to external causesObserver attribute actors’ behavior to internal cause
16 Errors/Biases in Social Perception Fundamental Attribution ErrorThe tendency to attribute others' bad performance to internal causes &Attribute their good performance to external causes
17 Errors/Biases in Social Perception Self-serving biasattribute successes to ourselves - internalattribute failures to the environment – external
18 Performance appraisal and errors in social perception Supervisor:Subordinate:
20 Guard against specific biases StereotypesBe aware that stereotyping can occur with very little information, remain open to new informationRecognize that stereotypes rarely apply to a specific individualFundamental attribution error?Primacy/recency?Halo?Confirmation?
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