2The Decades of LifeWrite one-two words that seem appropriate to each decade of life.Decades:0-910-1920-2930-3940-4950-5960-6970-7980-89Write the letter “E” next to the decade for which it was easiest to find words and the letter “H” next to the decade for which it was the hardest to find words.Why are some decades easier or harder than others? Do the first three decades tend to be the easiest? Why ? Do they that no important changes occur after early adulthood? Did they respond to certain decades in terms of specific individuals? Common words for particular decade?. Later, discuss stage theories and criticisms.
3Objective 1: What are three major issues studied by developmental psychologists? 1. Nature & Nurture:What has a greater impact on who you are – DNA or home environment?2. Continuity & Stages:Is development more of a gradual process or more of a series of unique stages3. Stability & Change:Do our core personality traits persist through life or are we different people as we age?
4Development Survey Stability/Change Score = Answer #s 1-9 Put your scores & what they mean in your notes next to definitions of the 3 debatesDevelopment Survey8+ = traits persist7- = traits changeStability/Change Score =(1,4,7)Continuity/ Stages Score =(2,5,8)Nature / Nurture Score =(3,6,9)Answer #s 1-9Reverse #3, #4, #50 change to 51 change to 42 change to 33 change to 24 change to 15 change to 0Total #s 1,4,7 =Total #s 2,5,8 =Total #s 3,6,9=8+ = dev gradual/continuous7- = distinct unique stages8+ =see nature (DNA) as more important7- = see nurture (home) as more imp.
5Conception Objective 2: How does conception occur, & what are chromosomes, DNA, genes, and the genomeConception: egg nucleus and sperm nucleus fuse
6Prenatal Development Chromosomes DNA Genes structures that carry genes, which are the basic units of heredityDNAthe biological instructions that make each species uniqueCarry genesGenessegment of DNAactive or inactivetriggered by environmentmany genes effect one trait
7Heredity & environment interact. passing traits from parent to offspringGenomeshared human genetic codeHeredity & environment interact.Height – diet and/or injury during growthKalie & Ashley
8Objective 3: How does life develop before birth, and how do teratogens put prenatal development at risk?fertilized egg = zygote (1st 10 days)embryo = week 2 -8fetus = 9 weeks onteratogens – damage fetus(FAS)
9Objective 4: What are the newborns abilities & traits? Reflexesresponses suited for survivalRootingGaze longer at facelike imagesLook at images 12 inches awayWithin days after birth can distinguish mother’s smell & voice12 inches is the distance between nursing baby eyes and mother’s eyes.
10#3-12-14-19: fearfulness score Babies also differ…Temperament – emotional excitabilityidentical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to share the same temperamentActivity = energy output don’t sit still long; active rather than quiet activitiesEmotionality = intensity of emotional reactions – frightened or angry very quicklySociability = tendency to affiliate & interact w/ others. Seek out others & enjoy their companyReverse the score for #s 6, 18 & 19 (5=1,4=2,3=3,2=4,1=5)#2,7,10,17 Activity Total13.4 / 12.8# : distress score# : fearfulness score# : anger score10.0 / 9.710.6/8.910.2/10.8#1,6,15,20 Sociability Total13.4 / 12.8
11Objective 5: How do twin & adoption studies help us understand the effects of nature nurture Heredity/DNAseparated twin studies control ___________while varyingthe_____________adoption studies control ______________while varyingnon-twin siblings who grow up together, whether biologically related or not, do not much resemble one another in personalityadoptees are more similar to biological parents than adoptive parents in most traits except for religious & political beliefsenvironmentenvironmentHeredity/DNA(Twins Clip #15 minutes)complete similarity surveyread Jim & Jimtake notes
13Objective 6 How do the brain & motor skills develop during infancy & childhood? maturation: biological growth process leading to orderly changes in behavior, independent of experienceborn w/ all brain cells ever need BUT it’s the wiring – the neural networks – that develop throughout life
14Objective 6… Brain Development nature & nurture working togethercritical period:time early in life when exposure to certain stimuli/experience is needed for proper developmentBrain development3 to 6 years (frontal lobe)Association Areas – last to developPruning process happens in teen years“use-it-or-lose-it”Biological growth process NOT due to experience – shows similarities in species
15Objective 6 Motor Development… the sequence of physical development is universalheredity plays major role in motor dev.(experience doesn’t have much effect)premature babies are massaged
16Developmental Landmarks Laugh – 2 monthsTricycle – 24 monthsSit – 5/6 monthsAshamed – 2 yearsWalk – 12 months1 foot - 4 ½ yearsRecognize & smile at mom or dad – 4/5 monthsKick ball forward – 20 monthsThink about things unseen – 2 years2-word sentences – 20/22 months
17cognitive development Objective 7 How did Piaget view the developmental stages of a child’s mind, & how does current thinking about cognitive development differ?Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile, and they can retain that learning for a month.
18After habituating to the stimulus on the left, 4-month-olds stared longer if shown the impossible version of the cube—where one of the back vertical bars crosses over a front horizontal bar.
19Jean Piaget ( )“If we examine the intellectual development of the individual or of the whole of humanity, we shall find that the human spirit goes through a certain number of stages, each different from the other”interested when he realized children tended to make the same mistakes on tests at certain ages
20struggle to make sense of our experiences 18- to 30-month-old children may fail to take the size of an object into account when trying to perform impossible actions with it.At left, a 21-month-old attempts to slide down a miniature slide. At right, a 24-month-old opens the door to a miniature car and tries to step inside.
21Objective 7 Piaget…People constantly building SCHEMAS – framework that organizes & interprets information
22Leave 5 lines for each box STAGEAGEKEY TERMSEXAMPLE OF BEHAVIORsensorimotorProvide any key terms given & defineGive age rangeDefine termobject permanencepreoperationalconservationegocentrictheory of mindconcrete operationalformal operational