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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Decades of Life Write one-two words that seem appropriate to each decade of life. Decades: 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 Write the letter “E” next to the decade for which it was easiest to find words and the letter “H” next to the decade for which it was the hardest to find words. Why are some decades easier or harder than others? Do the first three decades tend to be the easiest? Why ? Do they that no important changes occur after early adulthood? Did they respond to certain decades in terms of specific individuals? Common words for particular decade?. Later, discuss stage theories and criticisms.

3 Objective 1: What are three major issues studied by developmental psychologists?
1. Nature & Nurture: What has a greater impact on who you are – DNA or home environment? 2. Continuity & Stages: Is development more of a gradual process or more of a series of unique stages 3. Stability & Change: Do our core personality traits persist through life or are we different people as we age?

4 Development Survey Stability/Change Score = Answer #s 1-9
Put your scores & what they mean in your notes next to definitions of the 3 debates Development Survey 8+ = traits persist 7- = traits change Stability/Change Score = (1,4,7) Continuity/ Stages Score = (2,5,8) Nature / Nurture Score = (3,6,9) Answer #s 1-9 Reverse #3, #4, #5 0 change to 5 1 change to 4 2 change to 3 3 change to 2 4 change to 1 5 change to 0 Total #s 1,4,7 = Total #s 2,5,8 = Total #s 3,6,9= 8+ = dev gradual/continuous 7- = distinct unique stages 8+ =see nature (DNA) as more important 7- = see nurture (home) as more imp.

5 Conception Objective 2: How does conception occur, & what are chromosomes, DNA, genes, and the genome Conception: egg nucleus and sperm nucleus fuse

6 Prenatal Development Chromosomes DNA Genes
structures that carry genes, which are the basic units of heredity DNA the biological instructions that make each species unique Carry genes Genes segment of DNA active or inactive triggered by environment many genes effect one trait

7 Heredity & environment interact.
passing traits from parent to offspring Genome shared human genetic code Heredity & environment interact. Height – diet and/or injury during growth Kalie & Ashley

8 Objective 3: How does life develop before birth, and how do teratogens put prenatal development at risk? fertilized egg = zygote (1st 10 days) embryo = week 2 -8 fetus = 9 weeks on teratogens – damage fetus (FAS)

9 Objective 4: What are the newborns abilities & traits?
Reflexes responses suited for survival Rooting Gaze longer at facelike images Look at images 12 inches away Within days after birth can distinguish mother’s smell & voice 12 inches is the distance between nursing baby eyes and mother’s eyes.

10 #3-12-14-19: fearfulness score
Babies also differ… Temperament – emotional excitability identical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to share the same temperament Activity = energy output don’t sit still long; active rather than quiet activities Emotionality = intensity of emotional reactions – frightened or angry very quickly Sociability = tendency to affiliate & interact w/ others. Seek out others & enjoy their company Reverse the score for #s 6, 18 & 19 (5=1,4=2,3=3,2=4,1=5) #2,7,10,17 Activity Total 13.4 / 12.8 # : distress score # : fearfulness score # : anger score 10.0 / 9.7 10.6/8.9 10.2/10.8 #1,6,15,20 Sociability Total 13.4 / 12.8

11 Objective 5: How do twin & adoption studies help us understand the effects of nature nurture
Heredity/DNA separated twin studies control ___________while varying the_____________ adoption studies control ______________while varying non-twin siblings who grow up together, whether biologically related or not, do not much resemble one another in personality adoptees are more similar to biological parents than adoptive parents in most traits except for religious & political beliefs environment environment Heredity/DNA (Twins Clip #1 5 minutes) complete similarity survey read Jim & Jim take notes

12 Infancy Childhood

13 Objective 6 How do the brain & motor skills develop during infancy & childhood?
maturation: biological growth process leading to orderly changes in behavior, independent of experience born w/ all brain cells ever need BUT it’s the wiring – the neural networks – that develop throughout life

14 Objective 6… Brain Development
nature & nurture working together critical period: time early in life when exposure to certain stimuli/experience is needed for proper development Brain development 3 to 6 years (frontal lobe) Association Areas – last to develop Pruning process happens in teen years “use-it-or-lose-it” Biological growth process NOT due to experience – shows similarities in species

15 Objective 6 Motor Development…
the sequence of physical development is universal heredity plays major role in motor dev. (experience doesn’t have much effect) premature babies are massaged

16 Developmental Landmarks
Laugh – 2 months Tricycle – 24 months Sit – 5/6 months Ashamed – 2 years Walk – 12 months 1 foot - 4 ½ years Recognize & smile at mom or dad – 4/5 months Kick ball forward – 20 months Think about things unseen – 2 years 2-word sentences – 20/22 months

17 cognitive development
Objective 7 How did Piaget view the developmental stages of a child’s mind, & how does current thinking about cognitive development differ? Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile, and they can retain that learning for a month.

18 After habituating to the stimulus on the left, 4-month-olds stared longer if shown the impossible version of the cube—where one of the back vertical bars crosses over a front horizontal bar.

19 Jean Piaget ( ) “If we examine the intellectual development of the individual or of the whole of humanity, we shall find that the human spirit goes through a certain number of stages, each different from the other” interested when he realized children tended to make the same mistakes on tests at certain ages

20 struggle to make sense of our experiences
18- to 30-month-old children may fail to take the size of an object into account when trying to perform impossible actions with it. At left, a 21-month-old attempts to slide down a miniature slide. At right, a 24-month-old opens the door to a miniature car and tries to step inside.

21 Objective 7 Piaget… People constantly building SCHEMAS – framework that organizes & interprets information

22 Leave 5 lines for each box
STAGE AGE KEY TERMS EXAMPLE OF BEHAVIOR sensorimotor Provide any key terms given & define Give age range Define term object permanence preoperational conservation egocentric theory of mind concrete operational formal operational

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