2 What makes you you? Is human behavior instinctive or is it learned? How does our individual heredity predispose our differing personalities, preferences & abilities?To what extent are we shaped by our heredity and our environment?
3 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint Genetics is the study of how heredity-the manner in which traits & characteristics are passed from parent to offspring.A trait is the characteristic being expressed: a crooked little finger, a dimple in the chin.
4 In 1867, Gregor Mendel, a Moravian abbot, gave modern genetics its start, when he reported the results of his research on breeding peas.Mendel believed that every trait was controlled by elements that were transmitted from one generation to the next.
5 He called these elements: Genes: the biochemical units of heredityMany genes together make up chromosomesGenes contain a segment of DNA,containing the code for a particular protein,which is the building block of our physical development.
6 Chromosomes Threadlike structures made up of DNA 46 pairs in each cell 23 received from each parent
12 Genome The complete genetic instructions for a given organism All the genetic material in an organism’s chromosome pattern
13 MutationRandom errors in the replication of genes from parent to child which result in change of an individual’s genetic codeCan be desirable or undesirable changes
14 Behavior GeneticsStudies the relative influences of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
15 EnvironmentAny influence, other than genetic, on an individual’s behaviorInclude:The culture someone is raised inOne’s familySocioeconomic group
16 Nature and Nurture Issue Nature side entails the genetic code passed from parent to child.Nurture side involves all environmental influences from prenatal development on.Which parts of human behavior can we attribute to nature and which can be attributed to nurture?
17 PredispositionThe possibility of something happening through the genetic codeGenetics creates the potential for somethingThe environment may or may not trigger the predisposition
27 HeritabilityThe proportion of an individual’s characteristics that can be attributed to genetics (heredity)The degree to which traits are inherited
28 Twin Studies Used to determine the heritability of a given trait Data is collected from both identical and fraternal twins on the traitCompare the data between the two groupsImportant not to conclude that a specific behavior is inherited
29 Nature and Individual Differences: Adoption Studies
30 Adoption StudiesCompare adopted children’s traits with those of their biological parents and their adopted parentsTrait similarities with biological parents: attribute the trait to heredityTrait similarities with the adopted parents: attribute the trait to the environment
31 TEMPERAMENT STUDIESTemperament is a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.Heredity seems to predispose human temperament differences.
32 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTAsk your parents what your temperament was like when you were a child?
33 Environment Matters: Early Learning and Brain Development
34 Early Brain Development Early experience is critical in brain development.In later life continued use is necessary to maintain neural connections in the brain.
38 Culture Shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and behaviors of a group Culture is communicated from one generation to the next
39 Norms Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior Consist of the “proper behavior” within a group
40 IndividualismGiving priority to one’s goals over the goals of the groupDefining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than the group’s identificationTend to see people as separate and independent
41 CollectivismGiving priority to the goals of one’s group over one’s personal goalsDefining one’s identity in terms of the group’s identification rather than personal attributesSee people as connected to othersIndividual needs are sacrificed for the good of the group.
42 GenderThe shaping of gender illustrates the effects of nature vs nurture.Genes & hormones define gender, as well as our environment and our culture.
43 Your sex is determined by your 23rd pair of chromosomes. The pair that came from your mother was an X chromosome.The pair that came from your father,Is either an X chromosome (a girl) or aY chromosome (a boy).
44 Gender is socially constructed. Our gender roles, a set of expected behaviors for males and females, are determined by our culture’s norms.Society assigns each of us to a:gender, the category of being male or female,with the result being our
45 Gender identity, our sense of being male or female and we becomeGender-typed, the exhibition of demonstrating traditional masculine or feminine roles.
46 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY States that children learn gender based behaviors by observing, imitation and byBeing rewarded or punished.
47 GENDER SCHEMA THEORYStates that children learn gender from their cultures.They learn a sense of what it means to be a male or female from their culture, and then must adjust their behavior to fit what their society expects of them.
48 Name of ConceptUse this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished