Presentation on theme: "HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGHOUT THE LIFE CYCLE (0-18 years old)"— Presentation transcript:
1HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGHOUT THE LIFE CYCLE (0-18 years old) Tjhin WigunaGitayanti HadisukantoChild and Adolescent Psychiatry DivisionDepartment of PsychiatryUniversity of Indonesia
2PRENATAL PERIOD, INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD Fetal LifeBehaviorNervous SystemMaternal StressGenetic DisordersMaternal Drug Use
3CAUSES OF HUMAN MALFORMATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE Suspected Cause % totalGenetic:autosomal genetic diseasescytogenic (chromosomal abnormalities)Unknown:polygenic, multifactorial, spontaneous error of dev, synergistic interactions of teratogens)Environmental:maternal conditions 4maternal infections 3mechanical problems (deformations) 1-2Chemicals, drugs, radiation, hyperthermia <1Preconception exposures <1(excluding mutagens and infectious agents)
4INFANCY Developmental Landmarks Temperamental Differences Attachment Reflexes & Survival Systems At BirthLanguage And Cognitive Development (Piaget)Emotional & Social DevelopmentTemperamental DifferencesAttachmentSocial Deprivation Syndromes & Maternal NeglectFathers And AttachmentStranger AnxietyInfant CareParental FitGood-enough Mothering
5TODDLER PERIOD Developmental Landmarks Parenting Language And Cognitive DevelopmentEmotional And Social DevelopmentSexual DevelopmentSphincter Control And SleepParenting
6PRESCHOOL PERIOD Developmental Landmarks Language & Cognitive DevelopmentEmotional & Social BehaviorSibling RivalryPlayImaginary CompanionsTelevision
8OTHER ISSUES IN CHILDHOOD Sex Role DevelopmentDream & SleepSpacing Of ChildrenBirth OrderChildren And DivorceStepparentsAdoptionFamily Factors In Children DevelopmentFamily StabilityOther Family FactorsParenting Styles
9PUBERTY Onset Of Puberty Changes In Hormones Psychosexual Development MenarcheNeurological ChangesCognitive And Personality DevelopmentNegativismPeer GroupParentingDevelopment Of MoralsChoice Of OccupationRisk-taking BehaviorUse Of DrugsPregnancyAbortion
11Definition A change of human needs and functions : A process of change throughout the years of life to the progression from birth to death.A change of human needs and functions :Physical DevelopmentPsychosocial Development (Erik H.Erikson’s Theory)Psychosexual Development (S. Freud’s Theory)Cognitive Development (Jean Piaget’s Theory)Moral Development (Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory’s)
12Influential factors:Intrinsic : genetic/disposition, as a function of ageExtrinsic : society, environment & culture
13Understanding the human life cycle To better understand the patient’s individual needs at various stages of life.To develop a better doctor-patient relationshipTo identify and assess various problems more appropriately and realistically.To set up a more realistic & problem oriented treatment plan.
14Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Basic principles:Stresses the psychosocial drives rather than the psychosexual drivesthe crisis of development originates in the personal goals to social expectation; not simply the inhibition of psychosexual drives.
15Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development The “Epigenetic Principle”The notion that development proceeds from a universal plan that continually builds upon itself at appropriate times.'anything that grows has a ground plan, and out of this ground plan the parts arise, each part having its time of special ascendancy, until all parts have arisen to form a functional whole'
16Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development The psychosocial crises, universally determined crisis, that builds on and incorporates previous experiences, current cultural influences and biological change.Unresolved crises may result in personality psychopathology which may persist in adulthood.Eight stage sequence of development ranging from birth to old age:the stages are not strictly tied to chronological age, nor are they always easy to separate.
17Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage 1 – Oral SensoryStage 2 – Muscular-AnalStage 3 – LocomotorStage 4 – LatencyStage 5 – AdolescenceStage 6 – Young AdulthoodStage 7 – Middle AdulthoodStage 8 – MaturityTrust v MistrustAutonomy v Shame & DoubtInitiative v GuiltIndustry v InferiorityIdentity v Role ConfusionIntimacy v IsolationGenerativity v Stagnation Integrity v Despair
18Stage 1 – Oral Sensory birth to 1 year (infancy) basic conflict is trust vs. mistrustthe important event is feeding and the important relationship is with the motherthe infant must develop a loving, trusting relationship with the mother/caregiver through feeding, teething and comfortingfailure to resolve this conflict can lead to sensory distortion, and withdrawal
19Stage 2 – Muscular-Anal age 1 to 3 years (toddler) Basic conflict is autonomy vs. shame/doubtThe important event is toilet training and the important relationship is with the parentsThe child’s energy is directed towards mastering physical skills such as walking, grasping and muscular controlThe child learns self control but may develop shame, doubt, impulsivity or compulsion if not handled well
20Stage 3 – Locomotor age 3 to 6 years (preschool) basic conflict is initiative vs. guiltthe important event is independence and the important relationship is familythe child continues to become more assertive in exploration, discovery, adventure and playthe child may show too much force in this stage causing feelings of guiltfailure to resolve this conflict can lead to ruthlessness and inhibition
21Stage 4 – Latency age 6 to 12 years (school age) the basic conflict in this stage is industry vs. inferioritythe important event is school and the important relationships are teachers, friends and neighbourhoodthe child must learn to deal with new skills and develop a sense of achievement and accomplishmentfailure to do so can create a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence
22Stage 5 – Adolescence age 12 to 20 years (adolescent) the basic conflict is identity vs. role confusionthe important event is development of peer relationships and the important relationships are peers, groups and social influencesThe teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics and religion. In addition, they must resolve their identity and direction.Failure to make these resolutions can lead to the repression of aspects of the individual for the sake of others (fanaticism)
23Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Basic principlesIntelligence as a particular instance of biological adaptation to the environment → A process of equilibration
24Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development cont The content of intelligence: ‘what’The Structure of Intelligence : ‘how’and ‘why’Through interaction of the mind with the external worldfits the world (external structures & organization) into his own mental framework (cognitive structure)Two important points in the building of cognitive structures :The person is actively involved in the building processAn environment with which it interacts is necessary for structural development (stimulation )
251. Sensori-Motor Stage (0-2 years old) Sensory contact understanding.The child explores the world surrounding them using it’s sensesInitially sucking/grasping reflex and moving onto reaching for objects out of reach.Major development within this stage: object permanenceInitially the baby cannot understand a object exists out of sight.As the baby reaches around 7/8 months a child will begin to understand the object/person still exists when out of sight.
27Pre-Operational stage (2-7years old) Toddler can understand the use of symbols and language. This is an example of symbolic thinking i.e. pretend playLanguage is now understoodDevelopment of:Animism…child understands ‘bad table’, believes inanimate objects have feelings as they do.Egocentricism…Can only see the world from their own point of viewAll these developments take place in the Pre-Operational Stage.Theory of mind (understanding of mental processes)
28Pre-Operational stage (2-7years old) Still very egocentricMountain task
29Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) The children are now able to conserveConservation:the awareness that a quantity remains the same despite a change in its appearanceThey understand that although the appearance has changed the thing it self does not.₌→→
30Kohlberg’s Theory of moral development Definition of moralityThe ability to distinguish between right from wrong. Involving:Cognition : role taking, reasoning, decision making.Feelings : empathy, altruism and careBehaviors : helping others, resisting temptation, etc.A person described as having a high moral standards is:Aware of the needs and feelings of others (cognition)Concerned about others (affective), and likely to respond on it appropriatelyDisplay that awareness and concern in dealing with other people (behavior)
31Kohlberg’s Theory of moral development cont Deficiencies in any of the three moral dimensions would indicate a “less than perfect” moral character. Theories regarding perspectives on moral development :Social learning theory, emphasizes on behavioral dimensionsPsychoanalytic Theory, emphasizes on the affective dimensionCognitive theory, emphasizes on the cognitive dimension
32Kohlberg’s Theory of moral development cont Level I – Preconventional Stage 1. Punishment and obedience orientation Stage 2. Concern with satisfying own needs Level II – Conventional Stage 3. “good boy good girl” orientation Stage 4. “law and order” orientation Level III – Postconventional Stage 5. The social contract Stage 6. The universal good
33The Life Cycle and the Care Profession. Familiarity with the life cycle is extremely important to doctors/nursesThe changing flow of life provides both challenge and opportunity to those who are in the care professionsKnowledge of the development stages will give you insightInto what is important to the patientHow she/he might respond to careThe integration of an individual’s physical, social, sexual, cognitive and moral components results in a person different from any other individualOptimal effective care should be tailored to the unique characteristics of its recipient.Design care that will meet the unique needs of the ill individual
34CHILD and ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT
35Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescent Mental RetardationLearning DisordersMotor Skills Disorder: Developmental Coordination DisorderCommunication DisordersPervasive Developmental disordersDisruptive Behavior DisordersFeeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy and Early ChildhoodTic DisordersElimination DisordersOther Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence: separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood
36Mood disorders and Suicide in Children and Adolescents Early-onset SchizophreniaAdolescent Substance AbuseAdditional Conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention:Borderline intellectual functioningAcademic problemChildhood or adolescent antisocial behaviorIdentity problem
37ReferencesHughes FP, Noppe LD, Noppe IC. Child development. Prentice Hall : New Jersey, 1996.Ellis JR, Nowlis EA. Nursing, a human needs approach. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co. : Boston, 1985.Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ. Synopsis of psychiatry. 8th ed. Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, 1998.