6Maturation & Reflexes Are they the same? Maturation—AUTOMATIC and sequential process of development (sit, crawl, stand, walk)Reflexes—an INVOLUNTARY REACTION or RESPONSE (swallowing, sucking, coughing)So do you think maturation and reflexes are the same? WRITE IT!
11CognitionAll mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and remembering.
12Cognitive Development Jean Piaget.Developing IQ testsnoticed that many children got the same answers wrong.Thought to himself, maybe these kids think differently than adults.
13Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development SensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete OperationalFormal Operational
14Piaget’s important concepts Children are active thinkers, always trying to make sense of the world.To make sense of the world, they develop schemas.Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.A mental framework for understanding the world
20Sensorimotor StageThe Sensorimotor Stage is from approximately birth to 2 years of age.Babies take in the world purely through their senses- looking, hearing, touching, tasting and grasping.
21Sensorimotor StageAt 4 to 8 months of age, your child will learn that she can make things move by banging them and shaking them. (Example--shaking a rattle, banging on toys, banging on tray of high chair)
22Sensorimotor StageBetween 12 and 18 months your child will be able to represent hidden objects in her mind (Object Permanence).In other words, she will be able to “see” objects even when they are out of sight.Before Object Permanence- what is out of sight, is gone from the universe forever – critical to overcome separation anxiety.1 minute clip
23Sensorimotor StageAt 18 to 24 months of age, a child will begin to use images to stand for objects. In other words, a physical object can represent something else. Symbols represent objects or events in one’s own environment.
24Sensorimotor StageThis ability is called mediation and is very important in a child’s development because it means the child can think about more than just the objects that are around her; she can think about the whole world.
25The Preoperational Stage is from approximately 2 to 7 years of age.
26Preoperational StageAt the early part of this stage, a child will develop the ability to use symbols.
27Preoperational StageBetween the ages of 3 and 4, your child will be able to apply this ability to symbolize with objects, to people (names represent people).
28Children LACK principles of conservation (until the end of this stage) 3 minute clip
29Preoperational StageBy the end of this stage, the child will understand the concept of conservation – the notion that no matter what you do to an object’s shape or size, the volume remains fixed.
30"Cut it up into a LOT of slices mom!!! I'm really hungry!!!"
31Preoperational StageChildren in the preoperational stage are egocentric (the inability to take on another’s point of view).
32Concrete Operational Stage 7-11 years oldUnderstand concept of conservation.1 minute clipCan think logically, use analogies, and perform mathematical transformations (5+9 is the same as 9+5) also known as reversibility.
33Formal Operational Stage We can reason abstractly.If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?Stevie Wonder is god.God is love.Love is BlindStevie Wonder is Blind.
40Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Moral Reasoning based onInternalized moral principles—What’s good for humankindMoral Reasoning based onSocial Rules and Expectations—--law and orderMoral Reasoning based onExternal Consequences—What will happen to ME?