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The End of Infancy The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "The End of Infancy The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 The End of Infancy The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot Chapter 6

2 Overview of the Journey Biological Maturation Perceptual-Motor Coordination New Modes of Thought Child-Caregiver Relations A New Sense of Self The End of Infancy Biological Maturation Perceptual-Motor Coordination New Modes of Thought Child-Caregiver Relations A New Sense of Self The End of Infancy

3 Biological Maturation Rate of growth Myelination Neural branching

4 Second-Year Changes Rate of growth is slower than during the first year Height: 29  38 inches Weight: 20  33 lbs.

5 Second-Year Changes Accelerated myelination Within cerebral cortex Between brain stem and cortex Leads to new self-awareness, emotional responses, better problem solving, voluntary control of behavior, enhanced analysis of visual and auditory input, and language acquisition Neuron branching close to adult magnitudes Each neuron has multiple connections with others, usually numbering in the thousands

6 Perceptual-Motor Coordination Locomotion Manual dexterity Control of elimination

7 Locomotion Walking: Development, integration, and practice of component skills Upright posture Leg alternation Weight shifting Sense of balance Occurs around the age of one year Increased walking coordination… Enhanced ability to perceive conditions of the environment…

8 Increasing Ability

9 Enhanced Perception Experience crawling up and down slopes does not seem to carry over to walking.

10 Manual Dexterity Coordination of fine hand movement increases significantly 12  30 months Throw a ball Turn pages of a book String beads Snip paper with scissors Build tower 6 blocks high Hold a cup of liquid without spilling it Dress themselves (but not buttons or shoelaces)

11 Grip Patterns for Spoon

12 Control of Elimination Requirements Sensory pathways from bladder and bowels must mature enough to transmit signals to the cortex Must learn to associate these signals with need to eliminate Also learn to tighten their sphincters to prevent elimination and loosen them to permit it

13 Control of Elimination Toilet training Succeeds in the limited sense that infants learn to eliminate when placed on the potty No change in the ages at which children gained sufficient control to stay dry at night Can stay dry during the day by the age of 2 (with adult watchfulness) Do not typically stay dry at night until the age of 4

14 New Modes of Thought Symbolic thought Problem solving Pretend play Deferred imitation Ability to categorize Pictures and models

15 Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy) SubAge (M)Description 10 – 1 ½Reflex schemas exercised 21 ½ – 4Primary circular reactions 34 – 8Secondary circular reactions 48 – 12Coordination of secondary circular reactions 512 – 18Tertiary circular reactions 618 – 24Beginning of symbolic representation

16 Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy) SubAge (M)Description 512 – 18Tertiary circular reactions: Deliberate variation of problem- solving means, with experimentation to see what the consequences will be 618 – 24Beginning of symbolic representation: Images and words come to stand for familiar objects; new means of problem solving through symbolic combinations

17 Evidence of Representation (Symbolic Thought) Ability to imagine an object not physically present Shown by systematic search for hidden objects Appearance of systematic problem-solving Emergence of pretend play Ability to imitate events well after they have occurred Ability to understand visual models

18 Mastery of Object Permanence Substage 4 (8-12 months) Infant finds an object hidden in one location and then observes it being hidden in a second location Will search for it in the original hiding place Substage 5 (12-18 months) Not confused by switching when watching If distracted when the switch occurred, however, will continue to search in the first location rather than elsewhere…

19 Substage 5

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24 Mastery of Object Permanence Substage 4 (8-12 months) Infant finds an object hidden in one location and then observes it being hidden in a second location Will search for it in the original hiding place Substage 5 (12-18 months) Not confused by switching when watching If distracted when the switch occurred, will continue to search in the first location rather than elsewhere Substage 6 (18-24 months) “Well it wasn’t where I expected it to be, but it must be here somewhere.” Able to anticipate the trajectory of a moving object that has disappeared behind a barrier

25 Problem Solving Infant in substage 5 carries out deliberate problem solving, but still relies principally on trial and error Infant in substage 6 pictures a series of events in her mind before acting (i.e., via inference)

26 Pretend Play Symbolic play (pretend or fantasy play) Play in which one object stands for another (e.g., banana for a telephone, railing for a road) Makes its appearance during the second year Allows children to perform actions more developmentally advanced than what they can perform on their own (e.g., “pour milk into a cup”)

27 Development of Agent Use in Pretend Play Type of AgentExample Self as agentThe infant puts his or her head on a pillow to pretend to go to sleep Passive other agent The infant puts a doll on a pillow to pretend that it goes to sleep Passive sub- stitute agent The infant puts a block on a pillow to pretend that it goes to sleep Active other agent The infant has a doll place a block on the pillow to go to sleep, as if the doll were actually “putting the block to bed”

28 Pretend Play Research Lasts longer and is more sophisticated when with mother than when alone Similarly, when with older sibling than when with mother However, in cultures where infants engage in less play (e.g., Mayan), equal performance on tests of development

29 Deferred Imitation First appearance at 6-9 months of age Toward end of 2 nd year, a new ability to “imitate” actions that adults (but not machines) intend to do, but do not actually complete Demonstrates the ability to represent the mental states of other people

30 Ability to Categorize 12 months: More likely to touch the toy they picked up than other toys that had the same shape 18 months: Create a small workspace in front of them and put 2 or 3 objects of the same kind in it 24 months: Divide objects into two distinct categories, working on one category at a time 30 months: Simultaneously coordinate work on two major categories and create sub- categories in which the objects are grouped according to color as well

31 Pictures and Models 2 years: Can rarely use pictorial information to find an object hidden in the room 2 ½ years: Can use a picture, but not a model of the room to find the object 3 years: Can use the model as a representation of the room to find the hidden object…

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35 Development of Child-Caregiver Relations Attachment

36 An emotional bond most prominent in infants from 6-18 months of age, evidenced by separation anxiety Explanations Freud: Caused by reduction of hunger drive (not substantiated, however, by research…) Erikson: Become attached to people who reliably attend to their needs and who otherwise foster a sense of trust Bowlby: Provides a balance between an infant’s need for safety and varied learning experiences

37 Animal Research The cloth mother, which does not provide nourishment, acts as a secure base, whereas the wire mother, which does provide nourishment, does not This contradicts drive- reduction theories of attachment (Freud) Harlow, 1959

38 Animal Research Although southing tactile sensations provide a baby with a sense of security that is more important to the formation of attachment than food, they are not sufficient Social interactions seem to be necessary for healthy emotional development

39 Human Research Mary Ainsworth and the “strange situation” Types: secure, anxious/avoidant, anxious/resistant…

40 Types of Attachment Secure Child reacts positively to a stranger as long as mother is present Becomes upset when mother leaves and is unlikely to be consoled by a stranger Calms down as soon as mother reappears Anxious/avoidant Child is indifferent to where mother is sitting May or may not cry when mother leaves Is as likely to be comforted by a stranger as by mother Is indifferent when mother returns Anxious/resistant Child stays close to mother and appears anxious even when mother is near Becomes very upset when mother leaves but is not comforted by her return Simultaneously seeks renewed contact with mother and resists her efforts to comfort

41 Causes of Variation in Patterns of Attachment Parental behaviors Mothers’ sensitivity to their infants’ signals of need seems to be related to higher levels of secure attachment Characteristics of the child Infants who had spent more time playing with objects than interacting sociably with their mothers were more likely to display signs of insecure attachment later on Family influences Maternal depression and marital discord appear to be related to lower levels of secure attachment Cultural influences Children who slept at home displayed a significantly higher level of secure attachments

42 Course of Attachment

43 A New Sense of Self Self-recognition Self as actor Sense of standards Secondary emotions

44 Self-Recognition 3 months: Little interest at all 4 months: Reach out and touch mirror image 10 months: Reach behind them if a toy is slowly lowered behind their back while they are looking in the mirror, but will not try to rub off a red spot that has been surreptitiously applied to their nose 18 months: Will reach for their own nose when they see the red spot; when asked, “Who’s that?” will answer “Me” Mirror

45 Self as Actor months (at same time as begin 2-word utterances) “Did it!” “Becky finished.” “Uh-oh. I fix.”

46 Sense of Standards Around 2 years of age Upset if ear of teddy bear is missing or mud on dress “Yucky” & “Fix it” Self-imposed goal of using all available blocks or fitting every doll into baby carriage Actively seek adults’ help in reaching goals and standards

47 Emergence of Secondary Emotions 6 primary emotions by the first birthday Joy, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust Primary – bear a simple, direct relation to the events that elicit them

48 Emergence of Secondary Emotions months: Experience new secondary emotions Embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, envy, etc. (e.g., self-satisfied smile, hang head, cover face, try to hide) Secondary – depend on infant’s new abilities to recognize, talk about, and think about themselves in relation to other people (e.g., in terms of some social standard, rule, or desired goal) Also known as “social” or “self-conscious” emotions

49 The End of Infancy A bio-social-behavioral shift Between the ages of 24 & 30 months

50 Prominent Shifts & Periods Shift PointDevelopmental Period ConceptionPrenatal period BirthEarly infancy 2 ½ monthsMiddle infancy 7-9 monthsLate infancy monthsEarly childhood 5-7 yearsMiddle childhood yearsAdolescence yearsAdulthood

51 Characteristics of the Shift Biological Myelination of connections among brain areas Leveling off of brain growth Maturation of brain areas in roughly equal degrees Social Decline of distress at separation Distinctive sense of self Acceptance of adult standards Emergence of secondary emotions Behavioral Walking becomes well coordinated Manual dexterity enables infant to pick up small objects Control over bladder and bowels More complex and planned problem solving Symbolic play and expression of basic words & phrases Conceptual representations and complex categories Smile accompanying mastery


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