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The End of Infancy Chapter 6 The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot.

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Presentation on theme: "The End of Infancy Chapter 6 The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The End of Infancy Chapter 6 The Development of Children (5 th ed.) Cole, Cole & Lightfoot

3 Overview of the Journey Biological Maturation Perceptual-Motor Coordination New Modes of Thought Child-Caregiver Relations A New Sense of Self The End of Infancy Biological Maturation Perceptual-Motor Coordination New Modes of Thought Child-Caregiver Relations A New Sense of Self The End of Infancy

4 Biological Maturation Rate of growth is slower than during the first year Height: 29  38 inches Weight: 20  33 lbs. Accelerated myelination Within cerebral cortex and between brain stem and cortex Leads to new self-awareness, emotional responses, better problem solving, voluntary control of behavior, enhanced analysis of visual and auditory input, and language acquisition Neuron branching close to adult magnitudes Each neuron has multiple connections with others, usually numbering in the thousands

5 Perceptual-Motor Coordination Locomotion Manual dexterity Control of elimination

6 Perceptual Motor: Locomotion Walking by about 12 months old: Development, integration, coordination and practice Upright posture and Leg alternation Weight shifting and Sense of balance Enhanced ability to perceive conditions in the environment Experience crawling up down slopes does not seem to carry over to walking.

7 Increasing Ability due to practice and experience

8 Perceptual Motor: Fine Motor Skill Coordination and movement increases significantly from 12 to 30 months Throw a ball, turn pages of a book, string beads Snip paper with scissors, build a 6 block tower Hold a cup of liquid without spilling Dress themselves (but not buttons or laces)

9 Perceptual Motor: Control of Elimination Requirements Must be ready, willing and able Sensory pathways from bladder and bowels must mature enough to transmit signals to the cortex Learn to associate signals with need to eliminate Learn to tighten sphincters to prevent elimination, and loosen them to permit it Toilet training Toddler learns to eliminate when placed on the potty Can stay dry during the day by the age of 2 (with adult watchfulness) Do not typically stay dry at night until the age of 4

10 New Modes of Thought Symbolic Representation Object Permanence Pretend Play Ability to Categorize Pictures and Models

11 Evidence of Symbolic Representation Imagines an object not physically present Shown by systematic search for hidden objects Systematic problem-solving Trial and error to reach a goal Begins imaginary play Imitates events after they have occurred Understands visual models Begins to draw Begins imitation of writing Begins to “read” familiar stories

12 Object Permanence: Substage months old

13 Mastery of Object Permanence Substage 6 (18-24 months) “Well it wasn’t where I expected it to be, but it must be here somewhere.” Able to anticipate the trajectory of a moving object that has disappeared behind a barrier Pictures a series of events in her mind before acting

14 Pretend or Symbolic Play Toward end of 2 nd year, “imitate” actions that adults do Ability to represent the mental states of other people One object stands for another (banana for a telephone) Children perform actions more advanced than what they can do on their own Lasts longer and is more sophisticated with mother or older sibling than when alone

15 Ability to Categorize 18 months: Create a small workspace in front of them and put 2 or 3 objects of the same kind in it 24 months: Divide objects into two distinct categories, working on one category at a time 30 months: Simultaneously work on two major categories and create sub- categories in which the objects are grouped according to color as well

16 Pictures and Models 2 years: Can rarely use pictorial information to find an object hidden in the room 2 ½ years: Can use a picture, but not a model of the room to find the object 3 years: Can use the model as a representation of the room to find the hidden object

17 Development of Child-Caregiver Relations Attachment

18 An emotional bond most prominent in infants from 6-18 months of age, evidenced by separation anxiety Explanations Erikson: Become attached to people who reliably attend to their needs and who otherwise foster a sense of trust Bowlby: Provides a balance between an infant’s need for safety and a variety of learning experiences Mary Ainsworth : Research on the “strange situation” Three Types of Attachment Secure Anxious/avoidant Anxious/resistant

19 Types of Attachment Secure Child reacts positively to a stranger as long as mother is present Becomes upset when mother leaves and is unlikely to be consoled by a stranger Calms down as soon as mother reappears Anxious/avoidant Child is indifferent to where mother is sitting May or may not cry when mother leaves Is as likely to be comforted by a stranger as by mother Is indifferent when mother returns Anxious/resistant Child stays close to mother and appears anxious even when mother is near Becomes very upset when mother leaves but is not comforted by her return Simultaneously seeks renewed contact with mother and resists her efforts to comfort

20 Harlow’s Monkeys The cloth mother, which does not provide nourishment, is seen as a secure base The wire mother, which does provide nourishment, is not seen as a secure base This contradicts drive-reduction theories of attachment by Freud, that children are attached to mother because she provides food Soothing tactile sensations provide a baby with a sense of security that is more important to the formation of attachment than food Social interactions seem to be necessary for healthy emotional development Harlow, 1959

21 Causes of Variation in Patterns of Attachment Parental behaviors Mothers’ sensitivity to their infants’ signals of need seems to be related to higher levels of secure attachment Characteristics of the child Infants who had spent more time playing with objects than interacting sociably with their mothers were more likely to display signs of insecure attachment later on Family influences Maternal depression and marital discord appear to be related to lower levels of secure attachment Cultural influences Children who slept at home displayed a significantly higher level of secure attachments

22 Developing a Sense of Self Self-recognition Secondary emotions

23 Self-Recognition 3 months: Little interest at all 4 months: Reach out and touch mirror image 10 months: Reach behind them if a toy is slowly lowered behind their back while they are looking in the mirror 18 months: Will reach for their own nose when they see the red spot on it; when asked, “Who’s that?” will answer “Me” months (begins 2-word utterances) “I do it!” “Becky all done” 24 months old Upset if something is missing or dirty “Yucky” & “Fix it” Goal to use all available blocks or put every doll into baby carriage Actively seeks adult help in reaching goals and standards

24 Primary & Secondary Emotions By 12 months - primary Joy, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust By 24 months - secondary Embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, envy, etc. (e.g., self-satisfied smile, hang head, cover face, try to hide) depends on toddler’s new abilities to recognize, talk about, and think about themselves in relation to other people or in terms of a rule or desired goal

25 The 24-month-old’s Bio-Social-Behavioral Shift Biological Myelination of connections among brain areas Leveling off of brain growth Maturation of brain areas in roughly equal degrees Social No longer showing signs of distress at separation Distinctive sense of self Emerging acceptance of adult standards and rules Emergence and display of secondary emotions Behavioral Walking becomes more coordinated Fine motor skill enables infant to pick up small objects Emerging control over bladder and bowels More complex and planned problem solving Symbolic play with expression of basic words & phrases Symbolic representations and complex categorization Smile when child experiences mastery


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