Presentation on theme: "Infancy through Childhood. A person’s patterns of mood, activity, and emotional responsiveness Shown within the first few months of life Differences can."— Presentation transcript:
A person’s patterns of mood, activity, and emotional responsiveness Shown within the first few months of life Differences can predict adult personality Because they emerge so early…probably genetic Temperament is also often predictive of later psychological disorders However, environment does matter!
Emotional bonding between an infant and a parent or caregiver Not unique to humans, but we do not imprint Major social achievement of infants Initially was thought to relate to the mother’s ability to provide food, comfort, and security Harry Harlow Studied baby rhesus monkeys Wanted to find out what was most important Results….
About the same time that infants begin to crawl (8 months) they also begin to display stranger anxiety (this is universal) The child recognizes who does and who does not belong in his/her social world Mary Ainsworth and the strange situation Secure attachment: In mother’s presence they play comfortably. When she leaves they are distressed. When she returns, they seek contact with her. (60%) Insecure attachment (avoidant and ambivalent): Less likely to explore surroundings, may cling to mother. When she leaves, they cry loudly or remain upset and seem indifferent to her departure and return
Sensitive mothers and fathers tended to have securely attached infants May also be the result of temperament Or a combination of both! Cultural influences also play a role
What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? In such circumstances children become: 1.Withdrawn 2.Frightened 3.Unable to develop speech If parental or caregiving support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels
On your own Read this section in your text (multiple times if needed) Be able to differentiate between all of the presented vocabulary words
Major achievement of childhood An understanding and assessment of who they are Self-esteem is how they feel about who they are Begins with recognition of self in the mirror School age: children describe themselves in terms of their gender, group memberships, and compare themselves with other children See themselves as good at some skills but not with others By 8 or 9 self-image is quite stable
Vary along two dimensions: Support (empathy and recognition of child’s perspective) Behavioral regulation (supervision of the child’s behavior accompanied by consistent discipline and clear expectations)
Impose strict rules and expect obedience Children never have a chance to make own decisions with bad consequences “Can I go to Brian’s birthday party? “NO!!!” “But Brian’s parents will be there” “What did I just say”
Permissive or indulgent (high support and low regulation) Submit to their children’s desires Make few demands and use little punishment Very warm “Can I go to Brian’s birthday party? There’s going to be booze and drugs and sex.” “As long as we know where you are”
low support and low regulation) Does not usually occur unless there is something seriously wrong Can I go to Brian’s birthday party?” “Who are you?”
Are both demanding and responsive Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them (but also explain reasons for rules) Encourage open discussion when making rules and allow exceptions, but there is no question as to who is running the show Consequences are educational, not punitive “Can I go to Brian’s birthday party?” “Are his parents going to be home?” “ I think so.” “Ok, but I am going to call his parents to make sure.”
Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents Those with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self-esteem Can prompt some rebelliousness Those with indulgent-permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature Also show a higher level of cigarette/alcohol use Don’t forget though…correlation does NOT equal causation !
Main agent of socialization Political attitudes, religious beliefs, personal manners
Psychodynamic theorist; Studied with Freud Developed stages regarding the social/psychological development of children Each stage is seen as a struggle/challenge between two ideas/concepts
Infancy (to 1 year): Trust v. Mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust (a sense that the world is predictable and reliable) Toddlerhood (1-3 yrs): Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschool (3-6 yrs): Initiative v. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent Elementary School (6-puberty): Industry v. Inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior